BANT Food and Health - Why we need to eat?
This poster explains the complex and far reaching role of nutrients to our health. Nutrients are not just about energy metabolism fuelling our structure but also about promotion of cellular and organ integrity and our emotional wellbeing. Body and soul provide a holistic whole to enable action and to provide information to promote genomic stability and pleasure in form of reduced stress, wellbeing and social interaction.
Sponsored Journal Article
Parity and the use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy
Objective: Folic acid (FA) supplementation has long been recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Factors influencing adherence to FA supplementation have been extensively evaluated, but little is known on the effect of parity. This study comes to examine the association between parity and maternal use of FA prior to and during pregnancy. Methods: In this retrospective population-based study, we identified mothers (N=228 555) of all children (N=578 204) born between the years 2000 and 2016 among members of a large health provider in Israel. Data on FA supplementation purchases were obtained from centralised medical databases. Results: The median (IQR) total dose of FA purchased 12 months prior to child birth among previously nulliparous women (120 mg, 48–240) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than the dose purchased by women with one (90 mg (39–202)) and two prior births (84 mg (36–182)). The dose was even lower in women for three or more prior births (75 mg (36–165)). Despite the overall increasing secular trend in FA purchases during the study period, the negative relationship with parity remained. Conclusions: Adherence to FA supplementation is negatively associated with parity. Women with increasing parity may be at higher risk for pregnancy complications associated with low FA levels. The results of this study may inform the design of interventions to specifically increase adherence to FA supplementations among multiparous women.
Effect of Nut Consumption on Erectile and Sexual Function in Healthy Males: A Secondary Outcome Analysis of the FERTINUTS Randomized Controlled Trial.
Plain language summary
National Institutes of Health define erectile dysfunction as a persistent difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual intercourse. The main aim of the study was to explore the effects of nuts supplementation on erectile function determined by the International Index of Erectile Function and the endothelial (inner lining of blood vessels) function. The study is a randomised controlled, two-interventions parallel, clinical trial conducted in healthy males who reported a Western-style diet. The 119 participants were randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Results indicate that adding 60 g/d of mixed raw nuts to a Western-style diet for 14-wk improved the auto-reported orgasmic function and sexual desire parameters in a group of healthy reproductive-aged participants compared with an age-matched control group. Authors conclude that compliance with a healthy diet supplemented with mixed nuts may help to improve erectile and sexual desire.
undefined: Lifestyle risk factors for erectile and sexual function include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, psychological stress, and adherence to unhealthy diets. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of mixed nuts supplementation on erectile and sexual function. Eighty-three healthy male aged 18-35 with erectile function assessment were included in this FERTINUTS study sub-analysis; a 14-week randomized, controlled, parallel feeding trial. Participants were allocated to (1) the usual Western-style diet enriched with 60 g/day of a mixture of nuts (nut group; = 43), or (2) the usual Western-style diet avoiding nuts (control group; = 40). At baseline and the end of the intervention, participants answered 15 questions contained in the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and peripheral levels of nitric oxide (NO) and E-selectin were measured, as surrogated markers of erectile endothelial function. Anthropometrical characteristics, and seminogram and blood biochemical parameters did not differ between intervention groups at baseline. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in the orgasmic function ( -value = 0.037) and sexual desire ( -value = 0.040) was observed during the nut intervention. No significant differences in changes between groups were shown in peripheral concentrations of NO and E-selectin. Including nuts in a regular diet significantly improved auto-reported orgasmic function and sexual desire.
Egg Consumption in U.S. Children is Associated with Greater Daily Nutrient Intakes, including Protein, Lutein + Zeaxanthin, Choline, α-Linolenic Acid, and Docosahexanoic Acid.
Plain language summary
Dietary guidelines recommend children and adolescents consume nutrient-dense foods to promote growth and development, and recently eggs have been included in these recommendations. At present, there are no studies in children and adolescents that have examined nutrient-related associations of egg consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. Using cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), data from 3,299 egg consumers and 17,030 non-egg consumers aged 2-18 was examined. Compared with non-egg consumption, egg consumption was associated with elevated intake of protein, healthy fats, antioxidants and various vitamins and minerals, and lower intake of sugar. There were several shortfall nutrients associated with egg consumption including fibre, iron, and folate. No associations were found when examining diet quality and growth-relate measures. This analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents. Based on these results, the authors conclude this study illustrates an opportunity to communicate the benefits linked with egg consumption to individuals that influence children and adolescents.
undefined: Dietary pattern recommendations include consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods in children and adolescents to promote optimal growth and development. The current study investigated associations with egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. The analysis used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years ( = 3,299, egg consumers; = 17,030, egg non-consumers). Daily energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES using appropriate weights. Consuming eggs was associated with increased daily energy intake relative to non-egg consumption. Children and adolescents consuming eggs had elevated daily intake of protein, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and total fat, α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium. Egg consumers had greater consumption, sodium, saturated fat, with reduced total and added sugar versus egg non-consumers. The analysis also showed that egg consumption was linked with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, and niacin. No associations were determined when examining diet quality and growth-related measures. A sub-analysis considering socioeconomic status showed that egg consumption was positively related with daily lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA intake. The current analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents.
Multifactorial Etiology of Anemia in Celiac Disease and Effect of Gluten-Free Diet: A Comprehensive Review.
Plain language summary
Anaemia is a common clinical expression of Celiac Disease (CD) alongside vitamin B12, iron and folate deficiencies. This review looks at the latest evidence and effects of a gluten free diet, the mainstay of treatment for CD. Typically, symptoms subside whilst adhering to a GF diet however in 20% of people anaemia and nutrient deficiencies can persist. Some of this is attributed to lack of adherence to the diet, oftentimes accidental given the wide range of foods containing gluten. This in turn leads to further damage of the intestine and can be difficult to detect and monitor effectively. Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and malabsorption, are the main reasons for nutrient deficiencies leading to anaemia in CD. Iron is a critical nutrient which can easily be affected by damage to the intestinal villi, common in CD, and over time lead to iron deficiency anaemia as the body is unable to absorb dietary iron and the body’s iron stores are depleted. Likewise, absorption of vitamins B12 and B9 (folate) are also impaired by damaged villi and vitamin B12 is further affected by small intestine injuries including decreased gastric acid production, bacterial overgrowth and reduced intrinsic factor efficiency. Deficiencies of these two nutrients can lead to macrocytic anaemia with low blood cell volumes. Overall a gluten free diet is shown to reduce symptoms of CD in a matter of weeks. The more patients adhere to the diet, the more the risk of nutrient deficiencies and anaemia reduces.
undefined: Celiac disease (CD) is a multisystemic disorder with different clinical expressions, from malabsorption with diarrhea, anemia, and nutritional compromise to extraintestinal manifestations. Anemia might be the only clinical expression of the disease, and iron deficiency anemia is considered one of the most frequent extraintestinal clinical manifestations of CD. Therefore, CD should be suspected in the presence of anemia without a known etiology. Assessment of tissue anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibodies are indicated in these cases and, if positive, digestive endoscopy and intestinal biopsy should be performed. Anemia in CD has a multifactorial pathogenesis and, although it is frequently a consequence of iron deficiency, it can be caused by deficiencies of folate or vitamin B , or by blood loss or by its association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or other associated diseases. The association between CD and IBD should be considered during anemia treatment in patients with IBD, because the similarity of symptoms could delay the diagnosis. Vitamin B deficiency is common in CD and may be responsible for anemia and peripheral myeloneuropathy. Folate deficiency is a well-known cause of anemia in adults, but there is little information in children with CD; it is still unknown if anemia is a symptom of the most typical CD in adult patients either by predisposition due to the fact of age or because biochemical and clinical manifestations take longer to appear.
Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.
Plain language summary
Globally, around 39% of adults are overweight and 13% obese, and more than one third of American adults are obese. Being overweight or obese is associated with many chronic conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss, even at moderate level, can reduce the risk of these obesity-related chronic conditions. Commercial weight-loss diet plans can vary greatly, not only in energy content but also in macronutrient and micronutrient composition. Most plans restrict calories or certain macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate or fat, and in doing so, often overlook micronutrient, i.e. vitamin and mineral, content. Previous studies have shown that many weight-loss plans do not provide adequate amounts of all micronutrients, and in order to reach the reference daily intakes for various vitamins and minerals, dieters would need to increase their calorie intake significantly and often unrealistically. The authors of this paper analysed seven single-day menus of three select commercial diet plans to determine their micronutrient sufficiency. The diet plans included were Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss (ETL-VAWL), Fast Metabolism Diet (FMD), and Eat, Drink and Be Healthy (EDH). ETL-VAWL diet provided less than 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium, while EDH diet didn’t meet the recommended amounts for vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Even after adjusting all the plans to an intake of 2000 kcal/day, several micronutrients were found to remain inadequate (vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets). The authors conclude that, in order to reduce the risk of micronutrient deficiencies, more attention needs to be paid to micronutrient rich foods when designing commercial diet plans. Alternatively, these nutrient gaps should be filled in other ways, e.g. using appropriate dietary supplements.
undefined: Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI) in B₁, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.
Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males.
Journal of translational medicine. 2016;14(1):290
Plain language summary
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) allows subjects to consume ad libitum energy intake within a defined window of time, which means a fasting window of 12–21 h per day is employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an isoenergetic TRF protocol on body composition, athletic performance, and metabolic factors during resistance training in healthy resistance trained males. The study enrolled thirty-four resistance-trained males. The participants were randomly assigned to a TRF group (n = 17) or standard diet group (n = 17). Training was standardized for both groups. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, a significant decrease in fat mass was observed in the TRF group, while fat-free mass was maintained in both groups. The same trend was observed for arm and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. Leg press maximal strength increased significantly, but no difference was present between treatments. Authors conclude that TRF can maintain muscle mass, reducing body fat, and reducing inflammation markers and anabolic hormones. This kind of regimen could be adopted by athletes during maintenance phases of training in which the goal is to maintain muscle mass while reducing fat mass.
BACKGROUND Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males. METHODS Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to time-restricted feeding (TRF) or normal diet group (ND). TRF subjects consumed 100 % of their energy needs in an 8-h period of time each day, with their caloric intake divided into three meals consumed at 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. The remaining 16 h per 24-h period made up the fasting period. Subjects in the ND group consumed 100 % of their energy needs divided into three meals consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution (TRF 2826 ± 412.3 kcal/day, carbohydrates 53.2 ± 1.4 %, fat 24.7 ± 3.1 %, protein 22.1 ± 2.6 %, ND 3007 ± 444.7 kcal/day, carbohydrates 54.7 ± 2.2 %, fat 23.9 ± 3.5 %, protein 21.4 ± 1.8). Subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of the assigned diet and standardized resistance training program. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscle area of the thigh and arm were measured using an anthropometric system. Total and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Bench press and leg press maximal strength, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory ratio were also tested. RESULTS After 8 weeks, the 2 Way ANOVA (Time * Diet interaction) showed a decrease in fat mass in TRF compared to ND (p = 0.0448), while fat-free mass, muscle area of the arm and thigh, and maximal strength were maintained in both groups. Testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreased significantly in TRF, with no changes in ND (p = 0.0476; p = 0.0397). Adiponectin increased (p = 0.0000) in TRF while total leptin decreased (p = 0.0001), although not when adjusted for fat mass. Triiodothyronine decreased in TRF, but no significant changes were detected in thyroid-stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides. Resting energy expenditure was unchanged, but a significant decrease in respiratory ratio was observed in the TRF group. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that an intermittent fasting program in which all calories are consumed in an 8-h window each day, in conjunction with resistance training, could improve some health-related biomarkers, decrease fat mass, and maintain muscle mass in resistance-trained males.