Dietary carbohydrate restriction augments weight loss-induced improvements in glycaemic control and liver fat in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial.
Plain language summary
The carbohydrate restricted diet has been shown to be beneficial for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) management and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. This open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial involved Type 2 diabetic patients taking antidiabetic medications who restricted their energy intake by following either a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet or a conventional diabetic diet. Participants in both groups had a 5.9% reduction in body weight, similar changes in fasting NEFA, apoB, apoA-1, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol, and a significant reduction in fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA2-IR after 6 weeks of intervention. Carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet group showed a greater reduction in HbA1c and diurnal mean glucose, glycaemic variability, fasting triacylglycerol concentration and liver fat content. Carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet caused an adverse reaction in some patients, and those following a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet excreted more urea than those eating a conventional diabetic diet. To confirm the results of this study, long-term robust studies are needed. This study can assist healthcare professionals in understanding the benefits of following a carbohydrate-reduced high protein diet in improving glycaemic control, triglyceride levels, and reducing body weight in Type 2 diabetes patients.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Lifestyle modification and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes management. However, carbohydrate restriction may have weight-independent beneficial effects on glycaemic control. This has been difficult to demonstrate because low-carbohydrate diets readily decrease body weight. We hypothesised that carbohydrate restriction enhances the beneficial metabolic effects of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. METHODS This open-label, parallel RCT included adults with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), BMI >25 kg/m2, eGFR >30 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2 and glucose-lowering therapy restricted to metformin or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Participants were randomised by a third party and assigned to 6 weeks of energy restriction (all foods were provided) aiming at ~6% weight loss with either a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet (CRHP, percentage of total energy intake [E%]: CH30/P30/F40) or a conventional diabetes diet (CD, E%: CH50/P17/F33). Fasting blood samples, continuous glucose monitoring and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to assess glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and intrahepatic fat. Change in HbA1c was the primary outcome; changes in circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol were secondary outcomes. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital (Bispebjerg and Herlev). RESULTS Seventy-two adults (CD 36, CRHP 36, all white, 38 male sex) with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 8 years, mean HbA1c 57 mmol/mol [7.4%]) and mean BMI of 33 kg/m2 were enrolled, of which 67 (CD 33, CRHP 34) completed the study. Body weight decreased by 5.8 kg (5.9%) in both groups after 6 weeks. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet further reduced HbA1c (mean [95% CI] -1.9 [-3.5, -0.3] mmol/mol [-0.18 (-0.32, -0.03)%], p = 0.018) and diurnal mean glucose (mean [95% CI] -0.8 [-1.2, -0.4] mmol/l, p < 0.001), stabilised glucose excursions by reducing glucose CV (mean [95% CI] -4.1 [-5.9, -2.2]%, p < 0.001), and augmented the reductions in fasting triacylglycerol concentration (by mean [95% CI] -18 [-29, -6]%, p < 0.01) and liver fat content (by mean [95% CI] -26 [-45, 0]%, p = 0.051). However, pancreatic fat content was decreased to a lesser extent by the CRHP than the CD diet (mean [95% CI] 33 [7, 65]%, p = 0.010). Fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA2-IR and cholesterol concentrations (total, LDL and HDL) were reduced significantly and similarly by both diets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION Moderate carbohydrate restriction for 6 weeks modestly improved glycaemic control, and decreased circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol levels beyond the effects of weight loss itself compared with a CD diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Concurrent differences in protein and fat intakes, and the quality of dietary macronutrients, may have contributed to these results and should be explored in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03814694. FUNDING The study was funded by Arla Foods amba, The Danish Dairy Research Foundation, and Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg Frederiksberg.
The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
Effects of intermittent very-low calorie diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.
Journal of diabetes investigation. 2022;13(1):156-166
Plain language summary
Various studies have shown that intermittent low-calorie diets are effective in reducing weight and improving glycaemic control. In this randomized controlled trial, two intermittent very-low calorie diets (2 days per week and 4 days per week) were evaluated against a control group with respect to achieving diabetes remission, improving glycemic control, metabolic parameters, and quality of life in Type 2 diabetic patients. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c and insulin resistance in the 2 days/week and 4 days/week intermittent very-low calorie groups at week 20. Both the intervention groups achieved diabetes remission with 29% of participants not requiring glucose-lowering medications at week 20. Both intervention groups also showed a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, body weight, body mass index, and fat mass. Aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels, as well as blood pressure, decreased significantly with a 4 day/week intermittent low-calorie diet. Both intervention groups experienced improved quality of life at week 10 and the interventions were generally well tolerated. To generalise the results, longer-term, robust studies are required. These results can help healthcare providers understand the clinical relevance of intermittent very-low calorie diets in managing Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
AIMS/INTRODUCTION Very few studies assess the effectiveness of different protocols of intermittent very-low calorie diet (VLCD) in patients with diabetes. This study was designed to compare the effects of 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD on glycemic control, diabetes remission, metabolic parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants with obesity and type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, consisting of control, 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD. In the intermittent VLCD groups, participants received a 600-kcal diet per day on restricted days and ad libitum food consumption on non-restricted days. Glycemic control, rate of diabetes remission, metabolic parameters and quality of life were evaluated at baseline, weeks 2, 10 and 20. RESULTS A total of 40 participants were enrolled. The mean body mass index was 30.1 ± 5.9 kg/m2 , and the mean glycated hemoglobin was 7.4 ± 1.2%. At week 20, there was an improvement in glycemic control in both intermittent VLCD groups with significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin resistance index throughout the study periods. Diabetes remission without the need for medications was equally found in 29% of participants in both intermittent VLCD groups. Serum triglyceride, bodyweight, body mass index and fat mass were also significantly decreased in both VLCD groups. No serious adverse events were encountered. CONCLUSION Intermittent VLCD was highly effective in achieving optimal glycemic control. The effects of 2 days/week and 4 days/week of intermittent VLCD on diabetes remission were relatively similar.
Gastric emptying of solutions containing the natural sweetener erythritol and effects on gut hormone secretion in humans: A pilot dose-ranging study.
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2021;23(6):1311-1321
Plain language summary
In recent years, erythritol, a non-calorie sweetener, has gained popularity due to the rise in obesity and Type 2 diabetes worldwide. The purpose of this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial was to assess the effects of erythritol on the release of gut hormones, speed of gastric emptying, and the release of glucagon, motilin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide after erythritol administration. Erythritol in doses of ten, twenty-five, and fifty grams was well tolerated by the participants. The administration of erythritol induced a statistically significant dose-dependent stimulation of gut hormones such as plasma cholecystokinin, active glucagon‐like peptide‐1 and peptide tyrosine. Compared to the placebo, participants had slower gastric emptying with erythritol. Erythritol had no effect on the levels of motilin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, blood lipids, or uric acid. Erythritol should be evaluated in larger, robust studies to determine whether it improves glycaemic control. However, healthcare professionals can use the results of this study to understand the potential uses of erythritol in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
AIM: To determine whether a dose-dependent effect in the stimulation of gut hormone release (plasma cholecystokinin [CCK], active glucagon-like peptide-1 [aGLP-1] and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]) is found for the natural sweetener erythritol. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twelve healthy, lean volunteers received solutions with 10, 25 or 50 g erythritol, or tap water enriched with 13 C-sodium acetate on four study days via a nasogastric tube in this randomized (active treatments), placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Blood samples and breath samples (13 C-sodium acetate method for measurement of gastric emptying [GE]) were taken at regular intervals, and sensations of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were rated. RESULTS We found (a) a dose-dependent stimulation of CCK, aGLP-1 and PYY, and slowing of GE, (b) no effect on blood glucose, insulin, motilin, glucagon or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, (c) no effect on blood lipids and uric acid, and (d) no abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. CONCLUSIONS Solutions with 10 and 50 g of erythritol stimulated gut hormone release. Emptying of erythritol-containing solutions from the stomach was slower compared with placebo. There was no effect on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, blood lipids or uric acid. All doses were well tolerated.
Protective effect of probiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in people with obesity and is characterised by high amounts of fat stored in the liver. Diet and exercise are the standard treatments, however recent studies have indicated that the gut microbiota may have an important role. This randomised control trial of 140 patients with NAFLD, aimed to assess the effect of probiotics when added to standard therapy for 3 months. The results showed that although gut microbiota, some aspects of liver function, blood lipids and blood sugars were all improved in individuals on standard therapy, there were additional improvements in those on standard therapy plus probiotics. It was concluded that although standard therapy alone is adequate to improve NAFLD, probiotics plus standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone and effective in treatment of NAFLD. This study could be used by health professionals to justify the addition of probiotics to standard therapy to further improve NAFLD outcomes.
To investigate the effects of probiotics on liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, and hepatic fatty deposition in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Totally 140 NAFLD cases diagnosed in our hospital from March 2017 to March 2019 were randomly divided into the observation group and control group, 70 cases in each. The control group received the diet and exercise therapy, while the observation group received oral probiotics based on the control group, and the intervention in 2 groups lasted for 3 months. The indexes of liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups were compared before and after the treatment.Before the treatment, there were no significant differences on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamine transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups (P > .05). After the treatment, ALT, AST, GGT, TC, TG, HOMA-IR, NAS, and conditions of fecal flora in the observation group were better than those in the control group, and the observation group was better after treatment than before. All these above differences were statistically significant (P < .05).Probiotics can improve some liver functions, glucose and lipids metabolism, hepatic fatty deposition in patients with NAFLD, which will enhance the therapeutic effects of NAFLD.
Partial purification and characterization of extrinsic pathway inhibitor (the factor Xa-dependent plasma inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor).
Thrombosis research. 1987;48(1):11-22
Plain language summary
Green tea (GT) consumption has been associated with the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and metabolic disease as well as having a positive effect on body weight and composition. However, the polyphenols in GT have been shown to interact with mineral distribution within the body and those minerals have been shown to be deficient in obesity. Studies to measure mineral status in obese subjects supplementing with GT have been inconclusive and this study aimed to measure the serum concentrations of minerals (calcium, copper, iron, zinc, magnesium), body mass index, total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid profile and glucose concentration. 46 obese patients were randomised into 2 groups, one group were supplemented with 279mg of green tea extract (GTE) and 208mg of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the other group were issued with a placebo for 3 months. The study concluded that GTE improved Zn and Mg, however decreased levels of FE. The results confirmed a positive effect on body mass, lipid profile, glucose and TAS. It was concluded that more studies are required on a larger population over a longer period of time.
We report a procedure to purify partially from plasma (approximately 1200 fold) the factor Xa-dependent inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor (i.e., the extrinsic pathway inhibitor or EPI) and describe some of its properties. An assay for EPI was developed based upon inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor induced release of activation peptide from tritiated factor IX by a test sample in the presence but not in the absence of factor Xa. Approximately 50% of the total EPI activity in plasma was found in the lipoprotein fraction, which was used as the starting material for purification. Total lipoproteins (isolated by density ultracentrifugation) were delipidated and the urea soluble apoproteins gel filtered on Sephacryl S-200. The inhibitory activity co-eluted with the major protein peak, which primarily contained apoprotein A-I. Inhibitory activity was separated from apoprotein A-I by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and was further resolved from higher and lower molecular weight contaminating proteins by polypreparative disc gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% SDS. Functional inhibitory activity eluted from the polypreparative disc gel in two discrete pools of different molecular weights (approximately 34,000 and approximately 43,000 D). Apoprotein E was identified by immunological techniques as the major protein present in both of these pools. However, incubation with a monospecific polyclonal antibody to human apoprotein E did not decrease EPI activity either in plasma or in the partially purified polypreparative disc gel fractions. A rabbit antiserum was prepared against material from the polypreparative disc gel. The IgG fraction neutralized approximately 95% of the total inhibitory activity present in plasma. Therefore, EPI in the lipoprotein fraction and in the non-lipoprotein fraction of plasma appears to be antigenically similar.