The effect of periodic ketogenic diet on newly diagnosed overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
BMC endocrine disorders. 2022;22(1):34
Plain language summary
Currently, the ketogenic diet is gaining popularity in managing Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Ketogenic diets replace carbohydrates with fat and include limited carbohydrates and adequate protein. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effects of the 12-week ketogenic diet on sixty overweight or obese T2D patients. Both the ketogenic and control diabetes diet groups achieved significant reductions in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c. However, the ketogenic group showed significantly greater reductions in body mass, blood lipids, and blood glucose than the control group. In the ketogenic diet group, serum uric acid levels were higher than those in the control diet group. It was found that the control diet group adhered to the diet for a longer period than the ketogenic diet group, whose willingness to adhere to the diet long-term was weaker. More robust long-term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet. In this study, more patients who followed the ketogenic diet experienced hypoglycaemic events during the first four weeks. Healthcare providers should exercise caution when recommending a short term therapeutic ketogenic diet.
BACKGROUND The ketogenic diet (KD) is characterized by fat as a substitute of carbohydrates for the primary energy source. There is a large number of overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while this study aims to observe periodic ketogenic diet for effect on overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM. METHODS A total of 60 overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as T2DM were randomized into two groups: KD group, which was given ketogenic diet, and control group, which was given routine diet for diabetes, 30 cases in each group. Both dietary patterns lasted 12 weeks, and during the period, the blood glucose, blood lipid, body weight, insulin, and uric acid before and after intervention, as well as the significance for relevant changes, were observed. RESULTS For both groups, the weight, BMI(body mass index), Waist, TG (triglyceride), TC(cholesterol), LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), FBG (fasting glucose), FINS (fasting insulin), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) were decreased after intervention (P < 0.05), while the decrease rates in the KD group was more significant than the control group. However, UA(serum uric acid) in the KD group showed an upward trend, while in the control group was not changed significantly (P > 0.05).The willingness to adhere to the ketogenic diet over the long term was weaker than to the routine diet for diabetes. CONCLUSION Among the overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus, periodic ketogenic diet can not only control the body weight, but also control blood glucose and lipid, but long-term persistence is difficult.
Gastric emptying of solutions containing the natural sweetener erythritol and effects on gut hormone secretion in humans: A pilot dose-ranging study.
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2021;23(6):1311-1321
Plain language summary
In recent years, erythritol, a non-calorie sweetener, has gained popularity due to the rise in obesity and Type 2 diabetes worldwide. The purpose of this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial was to assess the effects of erythritol on the release of gut hormones, speed of gastric emptying, and the release of glucagon, motilin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide after erythritol administration. Erythritol in doses of ten, twenty-five, and fifty grams was well tolerated by the participants. The administration of erythritol induced a statistically significant dose-dependent stimulation of gut hormones such as plasma cholecystokinin, active glucagon‐like peptide‐1 and peptide tyrosine. Compared to the placebo, participants had slower gastric emptying with erythritol. Erythritol had no effect on the levels of motilin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, blood lipids, or uric acid. Erythritol should be evaluated in larger, robust studies to determine whether it improves glycaemic control. However, healthcare professionals can use the results of this study to understand the potential uses of erythritol in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
AIM: To determine whether a dose-dependent effect in the stimulation of gut hormone release (plasma cholecystokinin [CCK], active glucagon-like peptide-1 [aGLP-1] and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]) is found for the natural sweetener erythritol. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twelve healthy, lean volunteers received solutions with 10, 25 or 50 g erythritol, or tap water enriched with 13 C-sodium acetate on four study days via a nasogastric tube in this randomized (active treatments), placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Blood samples and breath samples (13 C-sodium acetate method for measurement of gastric emptying [GE]) were taken at regular intervals, and sensations of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were rated. RESULTS We found (a) a dose-dependent stimulation of CCK, aGLP-1 and PYY, and slowing of GE, (b) no effect on blood glucose, insulin, motilin, glucagon or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, (c) no effect on blood lipids and uric acid, and (d) no abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. CONCLUSIONS Solutions with 10 and 50 g of erythritol stimulated gut hormone release. Emptying of erythritol-containing solutions from the stomach was slower compared with placebo. There was no effect on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, blood lipids or uric acid. All doses were well tolerated.
Dietary Intakes and Cardiovascular Health of Healthy Adults in Short-, Medium-, and Long-Term Whole-Food Plant-Based Lifestyle Program.
Plain language summary
A plant-based diet (PBD) has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health. However previous research has reported incidences of gout, questioning its safety in certain individuals. Previous studies have mainly focused on the outcomes of short-term changes to a PBD. This study aimed to determine the effects of a whole- food PBD (WFPBD) on cardiovascular health in the short, medium and long-terms. This cross-sectional study split 151 healthy adults depending on how long they had followed a PBD. The results showed that regardless of the amount of time on a WFPBD, markers for cardiovascular health are improved. Long-term PBD (5-10 years) in women was associated with significantly lower LDL-cholesterol, which is a cholesterol that can increase heart attack risk. Significant improvements to blood pressure were also observed in women but again this was not time dependent. Indicators of gout development were not significant, although they were raised in a small number of participants. It was concluded that regardless of time, a WFPBD may be associated with long-term cardiovascular health. This study could be used by practitioners to recommend a WFPBD to healthy individuals who would like to reduce their cardiovascular risk. However, caution should be taken in individuals with gout.
An effective lifestyle strategy to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk (CVD) factors is needed. We examined the effects of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program on dietary intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in 151 adults (mean 39.6 (SD 12.5) years). Adherence was categorised into short-, medium- and long-term (years: (0.5-<2), (2-<5) and (5-10)), for both genders separately. Dietary intakes were assessed, fasting blood lipids and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and % participants reaching guideline recommended targets for LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and BP in the primary CVD prevention was assessed. There were no statistically significant differences in intakes of energy and most nutrients among participants (both genders), that were short-, medium- and long term in our program. Diet was mainly composed of unprocessed vegetables/fruits, whole grains, legumes, potatoes, and nuts/seeds. LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic BP were within targets for: 93%, 97%, 88% and 95% participants, respectively. In females (vs. males), total- and HDL-cholesterol were higher (mean): 3.8 (SD 0.7) vs. 3.4 (SD 0.9), p = 0.002 and 1.5 (SD 0.3) vs. 1.1 (SD 0.2) mmol/L, p < 0.001), systolic BP was lower (113 (SD 11) vs. 120 (SD 10) mmHg, p = 0.001), while there was no difference in diastolic BP (71 (SD 9) vs. 72 (SD 8) mmHg, p = 0.143). More females vs. males reached target triglycerides (99% vs. 91%, p = 0.021) and systolic BP (92% vs. 79%, p = 0.046), while similar females and males reached target LDL-cholesterol (94% vs. 91%, p = 0.500) and diastolic BP (93% vs. 100%, p = 0.107). Participation in our WFPB lifestyle program is associated with favourable dietary intakes, safety markers, and CV risk factor profiles.
An antiinflammatory dietary mix modulates inflammation and oxidative and metabolic stress in overweight men: a nutrigenomics approach.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2010;91(4):1044-59
Plain language summary
Increasing numbers of the population are overweight or obese, which increases the risk of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overweight/obese individuals have increased low grade inflammation, which is thought to be an underlying process in disease development. This double blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed to investigate if dietary supplements could reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Dietary supplements contained six nutrients (fish oil, green tea extract, resveratrol, vitamin E, vitamin C, and tomato extract) that had evidence of anti-inflammatory properties. Supplements were taken by thirty-six overweight male subjects for five weeks, following a crossover study design. Blood, urine and fat tissue samples were taken as markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and nutrigenomics. Although the main inflammatory marker was unchanged, the study did show a decrease in other inflammatory and oxidative markers, and increase in antiinflammatory markers. The highly sensitive nutrigenomnic measures were able to detect an overall metabolic change. The authors suggested that greater changes might be seen with a longer intervention period. The study showed that supplementation with antiinflammatory food extracts had a beneficial effect on inflammatory and metabolic processes in overweight individuals.
BACKGROUND Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. OBJECTIVE It was hypothesized that specific dietary components are able to reduce low-grade inflammation as well as metabolic and oxidative stress. DESIGN Dietary products [resveratrol, green tea extract, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, and tomato extract] selected for their evidence-based antiinflammatory properties were combined and given as supplements to 36 healthy overweight men with mildly elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with treatment periods of 5 wk. Inflammatory and oxidative stress defense markers were quantified in plasma and urine. Furthermore, 120 plasma proteins, 274 plasma metabolites (lipids, free fatty acids, and polar compounds), and the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adipose tissue were quantified. RESULTS Plasma adiponectin concentrations increased by 7%, whereas C-reactive protein (principal inflammation marker) was unchanged. However, a multitude of subtle changes were detected by an integrated analysis of the "omics" data, which indicated modulated inflammation of adipose tissue, improved endothelial function, affected oxidative stress, and increased liver fatty acid oxidation. CONCLUSION An intervention with selected dietary products affected inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and metabolism in humans, as shown by large-scale profiling of genes, proteins, and metabolites in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT00655798.