Isocaloric Substitution of Dietary Carbohydrate Intake with Fat Intake and MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral, Subcutaneous and Hepatic Fat Content in Middle-Aged Adults.
Plain language summary
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic due to the availability of many unhealthy food options and limited physical exercise, is a known risk factor for many metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with different types of fat as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study’s analysis was based on the KORA-FF4 study, the second follow-up study of the KORA Survey S4. A total of 400 individuals participated in the FF4 study, from which 283 participants were included in this analysis. Results indicate an association between fat accumulation at specific anatomic locations and macronutrient composition among the participants. The isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with fat was associated with higher hepatic (related to the liver) fat content and visceral fat accumulation. Authors conclude that the study’s findings can contribute towards the long-lasting discussion about a diet’s optimal fat content.
undefined: The present study investigated the association of carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with different types of fat with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and hepatic fat content as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data from 283 participants (mean age 56.1 ± 9.0 years) from the MRI sub study of the KORA FF4 study were included. VAT, SAT and total body fat were quantified by a volume-interpolated VIBE-T1w-Dixon MR sequence. Hepatic fat content was determined as the proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) derived from multiecho-T1w MR sequence. Dietary intake was estimated using information provided by two different instruments, that is, repeated 24-h food lists and a food frequency questionnaire. Replacing total carbohydrates with an isoenergetic amount of total fat was significantly positively associated with VAT and hepatic fat, while there was no significant association with SAT. The multivariable adjusted β-coefficient for replacing 5% of total energy (5E%) carbohydrates with total fat was 0.42 L (95% CI: 0.04, 0.79) for VAT. A substitution in total fat intake by 5E% was associated with a significant increase in liver fat content by 23% ( -value 0.004). If reproduced in prospective studies, such findings would strongly argue for limiting dietary fat intake.
Positioning the Value of Dietary Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate Quality, Glycemic Index, and GI Labelling to the Canadian Consumer for Improving Dietary Patterns.
Plain language summary
Nutrition science dictates that carbohydrates are elements of a healthy diet. However, consumers have increasingly antagonistic feelings toward dietary carbohydrate as a cause of weight gain. The aim of this study was to understand Canadian consumers’ knowledge and perception of dietary carbohydrates, carbohydrate quality, and the glycaemic index. A secondary aim was to identify a strategy for positioning the glycaemic index as a consumer-facing labelling program. The study conducted focus groups with forty-seven individuals. The participants were recruited into three consumer segments (normal body weight, previously obese and overweight/obese). Results demonstrate that the focus groups interpreted ‘carbohydrate quality’ as the categorization of carbohydrate foods as either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Additionally, Canadians were receptive to a labelling program that identifies carbohydrate food as having low glycaemic index. However, since low glycaemic index was perceived as a tool for diabetes management, low glycaemic labelling requires significant consumer education and adoption by industry. Authors conclude that glycaemic index could be used as a consumer-facing labelling program for Canadians and assist with de-stigmatizing carbohydrate foods.
The objectives of this qualitative study was to: (1) understand Canadian consumers' knowledge and perception of dietary carbohydrates, carbohydrate quality, and the glycemic index (GI); and (2) determine Canadian's receptiveness to GI labelling to assist with identifying and consuming foods of higher carbohydrate quality. Focus groups were recruited in Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal and grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (NBW, normal body weight; PO, previously obese; and OW/OB, overweight/obese) and diagnosis with prediabetes and diabetes (PO (Vancouver) and OW/OB (Montreal and Toronto). Subjects in all groups linked excess consumption of carbohydrate with weight gain. PO and OW/OB groups were conflicted between perceived negative consequences and feelings of pleasure associated with carbohydrate consumption. Subjects were largely unfamiliar with the term 'carbohydrate quality', but were often associated with classifying carbohydrates as 'good' or 'bad'. The concept of the GI resonated well across groups after exposure to corresponding educational materials. However, NBW groups largely felt that the GI was irrelevant to their dietary choices as they did not have a history of diabetes. PO and OW/OB groups associated the GI with diabetes management. The concept of a GI labelling program to help facilitate healthier carbohydrate choices was well received across all groups, especially when the low GI was interpreted as giving permission to consume foods they enjoyed eating. Results suggest that the GI could be used as a consumer-facing labelling program in Canada and assist with de-stigmatizing carbohydrate foods by helping to facilitate the consumption of carbohydrate foods that align with healthy dietary patterns.
Emotional Eating, Health Behaviours, and Obesity in Children: A 12-Country Cross-Sectional Study.
Plain language summary
Childhood obesity rates are high in both developed and developing countries. The most important contributors are the increased availability of energy-dense foods and a reduced need for physical activity. The aim of the study was to examine the association between self-reported emotional eating, health behaviours and body mass index in 9 to 11-year-old children. The study is a secondary analysis of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. The cross-sectional sample included 5,426 children with an age range between 9 to 11-year-olds. Results indicate a positive association between emotional eating and an unhealthy diet pattern, which was consistent in all 12 different study sites. Authors conclude that the association between emotional eating and an unhealthy eating pattern is not restricted to Western countries and their cultural and food environments.
undefined: Eating in response to negative emotions (emotional eating, EE) may predispose an individual to obesity. Yet, it is not well known how EE in children is associated with body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (i.e., diet, physical activity, sleep, and TV-viewing). In the present study, we examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5426 (54% girls) 9⁻11-year-old children from 12 countries and five continents. EE, food consumption, and TV-viewing were measured using self-administered questionnaires, and physical activity and nocturnal sleep duration were measured with accelerometers. BMI was calculated using measured weights and heights. EE factor scores were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. The associations of EE with health behaviours and BMI -scores were analyzed using multilevel models including age, gender, and household income as covariates. EE was positively and consistently (across 12 study sites) associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern (β = 0.29, SE = 0.02, < 0.0001), suggesting that the association is not restricted to Western countries. Positive associations between EE and physical activity and TV viewing were not consistent across sites. Results tended to be similar in boys and girls. EE was unrelated to BMI in this sample, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether higher EE in children predicts the development of undesirable dietary patterns and obesity over time.
Probiotic : Effective for Managing Childhood Diarrhea by Altering Gut Microbiota and Attenuating Fecal Inflammatory Markers.
Plain language summary
Acute diarrhoea caused by pathogens may induce gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines), bloody stool, or severe intra-abdominal infections that establish disease and increase the economic burden, especially among infantile and childhood populations. The aim of the study was to determine whether probiotics (Lactobacilluscasei) inhibited gastrointestinal infection and reduced the associated inﬂammatory response. The study is a prospective, randomized, case-controlled study which enrolled 81 children aged between 6 months and 6 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups (Lactobacilluscasei variety rhamnosus treatment and a no probiotic control). Study results indicate that probiotics can reduce the severity and duration of diarrhoea. Furthermore, probiotic colonisation improved bowel habits and reduced abdominal pain or colic and bloating. Authors conclude that the eﬃcacy of probiotic preparations for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea is related to individual bacteria strains. Thus, the population and modulation of intestinal gut/probiotic bacteria can be restored through the reduction of intestinal inﬂammatory reactions.
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and an economic burden for families. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of probiotics on clinical symptoms, intestinal microbiota, and inflammatory markers during childhood diarrhea. METHODS Children ( = 81) aged six months to six years (mean age 2.31 years) hospitalized for acute diarrhea were randomized to receive probiotics ( variety ; = 42) or no probiotics ( = 39) orally twice daily for seven days. Feces samples were also collected to evaluate microbial content using a traditional agar plate and next-generation sequencing. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, and calprotectin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared in different groups. Other clinical symptoms or signs, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloated abdomen, daily intake, appetite, and body weight were also assessed. RESULTS Data were collected from 81 individuals across three different time points. Total fecal IgA levels in fecal extracts of the probiotics group were higher than those in the control group, reaching statistical significance ( 0.05). Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were significantly downregulated in patients with probiotic variety (Lc) consumption compared to those of the control ( 0.05). Probiotic Lc administration may be beneficial for gut-microbiota modulation, as shown by the data collected at one week after enrollment. Counts of and species were elevated in stool culture of the probiotic group. Appetite and oral intake, body-weight gain, abdominal pain, bloating, as well as bowel habits (diarrhea) were much better in children receiving probiotics compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION Fecal IgA increased during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment; in contrast, fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were downregulated during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment. Probiotic Lc may be a useful supplement for application in children during acute diarrhea to reduce clinical severity and intestinal inflammatory reaction.
Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study.
Environmental health and preventive medicine. 2018;23(1):34
Plain language summary
Literature indicates that sedentary behaviours are linked to adverse health outcomes. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between screen time, including personal computer and mobile phone use, and nutrient intake among children and adolescents. The study used cross-sectional data from the Shika study which recruited Japanese children aged between 6 to 15 years of age. Results indicate a relationship between longer television viewing times and less protein, minerals, vitamins, and total dietary fibre intake. A relationship was also found between personal computer use in boys and less minerals and vitamins intake. Authors conclude that children and adolescents need to reduce the amount of time they spend watching television as well as the frequency of eating in front of the television screen in order to reduce health risk.
BACKGROUND Sedentary behaviors have recently become an important public health issue. We aimed to investigate the relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in children and adolescents. METHODS The present study was conducted in 2013. Data were collected from children and adolescents aged between 6 and 15 years old in Shika town. Questionnaires were distributed to 1459 subjects, 1414 of whom participated in the study (96.9%). Sedentary behaviors were assessed based on participants' screen behaviors (television (TV) viewing, personal computer (PC) use, and mobile phone (MP) use). The main outcomes were the intake of nutrients from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the significance of differences in nutrient intake estimates. Multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusting for age, BMI, and physical activity, were used to provide parameter estimates (β) and 95% CI for the relationship between screen time and nutrient intake. RESULTS In boys, longer TV viewing times correlated or tended to correlate with a lower intake of protein, potassium, calcium, iron, vitamin K, vitamin B-2, and total dietary fiber. In girls, longer TV viewing times correlated with a lower intake of protein, sodium, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B-2. Longer TV viewing times correlated with a higher intake of n-6 fatty acids in girls. PC use was related or tended to be related to a lower intake of potassium, iron, vitamin K, and folic acid in boys, but not in girls. A relationship was observed between MP use and a lower intake of vitamin K in boys, and MP use and a higher intake of vitamin D in girls. CONCLUSIONS The present results revealed that longer TV viewing times are associated with less protein, minerals, vitamins, and total dietary fiber intake in children and adolescents. It was also revealed that boys with PC use have less minerals and vitamins. These results support the need to design intervention programs that focus on decreasing TV viewing time in both sexes and PC use in boys while encouraging adherence to dietary guidelines among children and adolescents.
Simultaneous comparison of helium and nitrogen expiratory "closing volumes".
Journal of applied physiology. 1973;34(3):304-8
Plain language summary
Restricted sleep has been linked to obesity but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. This study aimed to assess whether restricted sleep (4.5hrs for 4 consecutive nights) alters the appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide in the following 24hrs in 19 healthy, lean men (BMI 19-24.9). This randomised crossover study assessed whether those hormonal changes predicted the food intake during ad libitum feeding. The study found that Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction but did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in calorie consumption from snacks, primarily from carbohydrates. They concluded that restricted sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. Elevated ghrelin is associated with an increased calorie consumption which may lead to the development of obesity.