Yogurt, cultured fermented milk, and health: a systematic review.
Nutrition reviews. 2021;79(5):599-614
Plain language summary
Many fermented foods are associated with health benefits, including fermented dairy products. Whereby diary itself is part of many nutritional guidelines, the guidances rarely distinguish between dairy and fermented dairy. This qualitative, systematic review sought to capture how consumption of fermented milk products influences health. The review included 108 studies, with over 70% reporting beneficial health outcomes. A small number of studies reported insignificant or neutral results and four unfavourable ones. The aspects of health that were considered included lactose digestion and tolerance, gut health and disease, diarrhoea and constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, cardiovascular health and disease, hypertension, blood lipids, cancer risk, colorectal/breast/prostate cancer, weight and body composition, diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome and bone health. The authors concluded that eating fermented dairy products aided lactose digestion and showed a consistent link with reduced risk of breast and colorectal cancer, type 2 diabetes, and improved weight maintenance, cardiovascular, bone, and gastrointestinal health. As dairy appears to increase the risk for prostate cancer, fermented dairy seems to be no different here to unfermented dairy at increasing the risk. Some potential mechanisms are proposed in the discussion section, how fermented dairy may elicit its health benefits. Given the predominant health benefits of fermented dairy, the authors encouraged to include fermented dairy into national nutrition guidelines and stress distinction between dairy and fermented dairy products. This review captures current evidence of the widespread health benefits of fermented dairy consumption worthwhile considering in clinical practice. In the absence of more clear findings in relation to prostate cancer and prevention, a cautious approach to dairy and fermented dairy consumption may be warranted.
Consumption of yogurt and other fermented products is associated with improved health outcomes. Although dairy consumption is included in most dietary guidelines, there have been few specific recommendations for yogurt and cultured dairy products. A qualitative systematic review was conducted to determine the effect of consumption of fermented milk products on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular health, cancer risk, weight management, diabetes and metabolic health, and bone density using PRISMA guidelines. English language papers in PubMed were searched, with no date restrictions. In total, 1057 abstracts were screened, of which 602 were excluded owing to lack of appropriate controls, potential biases, and experimental design issues. The remaining 455 papers were independently reviewed by both authors and 108 studies were included in the final review. The authors met regularly to concur, through consensus, on relevance, methods, findings, quality, and conclusions. The included studies were published between 1979 and 2017. From the 108 included studies, 76 reported a favorable outcome of fermented milks on health and 67 of these were considered to be positive or neutral quality according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Quality Criteria Checklist. Of the 32 remaining studies, the study outcomes were either not significant (28) or unfavorable (4), and most studies (18) were of neutral quality. A causal relationship exists between lactose digestion and tolerance and yogurt consumption, and consistent associations exist between fermented milk consumption and reduced risk of breast and colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, improved weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular, bone, and gastrointestinal health. Further, an association exists between prostate cancer occurrence and dairy product consumption in general, with no difference between fermented and unfermented products. This article argues that yogurt and other fermented milk products provide favorable health outcomes beyond the milk from which these products are made and that consumption of these products should be encouraged as part of national dietary guidelines. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068953.
Association of Major Food Sources of Fructose-Containing Sugars With Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA network open. 2020;3(7):e209993
Plain language summary
Fructose is a type of sugar that has been implicated as a contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a condition where large waist circumference, high blood pressure and elevated blood lipid levels may all coexist. However, it remains unclear as to the role of fructose containing foods in the development of MetS. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies aimed to determine the association of several fructose containing foods and drinks with MetS. The results showed that sugary drinks containing fructose increased the risk of MetS, whereas no associations were found with mixed fruit juice, 100% fruit juice, honey, ice cream or confectionary. Interestingly fruit and yoghurt containing fructose decreased the risk of developing MetS. It was concluded that fructose containing food and drinks are not all equal in their biological effects. Sugary drinks increased the risk of developing MetS but yoghurt and fruit had a protective effect against development. Reasons for this could be due to a generally unhealthier lifestyle in those who consume sugary drinks or may be due to the increased protective effects associated with the vitamins and minerals in fruit and yoghurt. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend a diet eliminating sugary drinks and containing regular fruit and yoghurt intake.
Importance: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars in the development of MetS remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to March 24, 2020, in addition to manual searches of reference lists from included studies using the following search terms: sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit drink, yogurt, metabolic syndrome, and prospective study. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included prospective cohort studies of 1 year or longer that investigated the association of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident MetS in participants free of MetS at the start of the study. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Extreme quantile risk estimates for each food source with MetS incidence were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Dose-response analyses were performed using a 1-stage linear mixed-effects model. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). Results were reported according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled risk ratio (RR) of incident MetS (pairwise and dose response). Results: Thirteen prospective cohort studies (49 591 participants [median age, 51 years; range, 6-90 years]; 14 205 with MetS) that assessed 8 fructose-containing foods and MetS were included. An adverse linear dose-response association for SSBs (RR for 355 mL/d, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) and an L-shaped protective dose-response association for yogurt (RR for 85 g/d, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76) and fruit (RR for 80 g/d, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86) was found. Fruit juices (mixed and 100%) had a U-shaped dose-response association with protection at moderate doses (mixed fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79; 100% fruit juice: RR for 125 mL/d, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97). Honey, ice cream, and confectionary had no association with MetS incidence. The certainty of the evidence was moderate for SSBs, yogurt, fruit, mixed fruit juice, and 100% fruit juice and very low for all other food sources. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the adverse association of SSBs with MetS does not extend to other food sources of fructose-containing sugars, with a protective association for yogurt and fruit throughout the dose range and for 100% fruit juice and mixed fruit juices at moderate doses. Therefore, current policies and guidelines on the need to limit sources of free sugars may need to be reexamined.
Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial.
Clinical interventions in aging. 2017;12:1223-1231
Plain language summary
Yoghurt contains beneficial bacteria that are known modify the immune system in a way that can help to reduce upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), such as flu. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to evaluate whether yoghurt supplemented with a probiotic strain known as Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115) could protect older adults from acute URTIs. 205 volunteers aged 45 years and over were randomly divided into two groups. Volunteers in the intervention group were given 300 ml of yoghurt supplemented with N1115 (3.6×107 CFU/ml) for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The incidence of URTIs and various immune markers were measured during the study. Compared to the control group, the number of people diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group. The risk of URTI in the probiotic group was 55% that of the control group. The change in the percentage of the immune CD3+ cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group, but no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups. The authors concluded that daily intake of yoghurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 can reduce the risk of URTIs in older adults. This effect may be due to the enhancement of T-cell immunity.
PURPOSE To evaluate whether yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain could protect middle-aged and elderly people from acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) using a randomized, blank-controlled, parallel-group design. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred and five volunteers aged ≥45 years were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the intervention group were orally administered 300 mL/d of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115), 3.6×107 CFU/mL for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The primary outcome was the incidence of URTI, and changes in serum protein, immunoglobulins, and the profiles of the T-lymphocyte subsets (total T-cells [CD3+], T-helper cells [CD4+], and T-cytotoxic-suppressor cells [CD8+]) during the intervention were the secondary outcomes. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the number of persons diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group (P=0.038, P=0.030, respectively). The risk of URTI in the intervention group was evaluated as 55% of that in the control group (relative risk =0.55, 95% CI: 0.307-0.969). The change in the percentage of CD3+ cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (P=0.038). However, no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION The study suggested that yogurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 may reduce the risk of acute upper tract infections in the elderly. The enhancement of the T-cell-mediated natural immune defense might be one of the important underlying mechanisms for probiotics to express their anti-infective effects.