The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Obesity Status, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Children and Adolescents with Obesity.
Plain language summary
Children and adolescents with obesity are at a high risk of being obese in adulthood. The aim of this study was to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity. The study is based on the Intervention for Childhood and Adolescents Obesity via Activity and Nutrition (ICAAN) – quasi-experimental intervention trial - which recruited 103 participants aged between 6 and sixteen years (63 were boys and 40 girls). The study was based on 2 active treatment groups (usual care group vs exercise group) receiving a 16-week intervention program. Results indicate that children and adolescents with obesity can achieve positive effects on body composition, physical fitness, and cardiometabolic markers, particularly with the exercise intervention. Authors conclude that the moderate-intensity multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program they developed, can be sustained in the real-world setting and it is applicable to both moderate and severe obesity.
undefined: This study aimed to develop a multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention program targeted at children and adolescents with moderate to severe obesity, and assess the additional effects of exercise intervention when compared to usual care. Overall, the 103 enrolled participants were ≥85th percentile of age and sex-specific body mass index (BMI). Participants were divided into groups that received 16 weeks of either usual care or exercise intervention. The BMI -score of the overall completers decreased by about 0.05 after the 16-week intervention ( = 0.02). After the intervention, only the exercise group had a significantly lower BMI -score than the baseline score by about 0.1 ( = 0.03), but no significant group by time interaction effects were observed. At the 16-week follow-up, significant group by time interaction effects were observed in percentage body fat (%BF) (β = -1.52, 95%CI = -2.58⁻-0.45), lean body mass (LM) (β = 1.20, 95%CI = 0.12⁻2.29), diastolic blood pressure (β = -5.24, 95%CI = -9.66⁻-0.83), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = -1.67, 95%CI = -2.77⁻-1.01), and wall sit test score (β = 50.74, 95%CI = 32.30⁻69.18). We developed a moderate-intensity intervention program that can be sustained in the real-world setting and is practically applicable to both moderate and severe obesity. After interventions, the exercise group had lower %BF and cardiometabolic risk markers, and higher LM and leg muscle strength compared to the usual care group.
Cognitive Effects of Intentional Weight Loss in Elderly Obese Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2016;101(3):1104-12
Plain language summary
Several studies have elucidated that midlife obesity increases the risk of dementia later in life. While the neuroprotective effects of caloric restriction have been widely demonstrated, they have not yet been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of intentional weight loss in elderly adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Eighty participants aged over 60 were randomly allocated to receive either nutritional counselling or medical care alone for 12 months. The findings of this study indicated that intentional weight loss through diet was associated with cognitive improvement in patients with MCI, and this association was strongest in younger adults and APOE4 carriers. As this was the first clinical trial exploring these effects in patients with MCI further research is warranted.
CONTEXT Obesity in midlife is a risk factor for dementia, but it is unknown if caloric restriction-induced weight loss could prevent cognitive decline and therefore dementia in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cognitive effect of intentional weight loss in obese elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), considering the influence of age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, physical activity, biochemical markers, and diet. DESIGN Single-center, prospective controlled trial. SETTING Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS Eighty obese patients with MCI, aged 60 or older (68.1 ± 4.9 y, body mass index [BMI] 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m(2), 83.7% women, 26.3% APOE allele ϵ4 carriers). INTERVENTION Random allocation to conventional medical care alone (n = 40) or together with nutritional counselling (n = 40) in group meetings aiming to promote weight loss through caloric restriction for 12 months. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS clinical data, body composition, neuropsychological tests (main outcome), serum biomarkers, APOE genotype, physical performance, dietary recalls. RESULTS Seventy-five patients completed the follow-up. BMI, on average, decreased 1.7 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) (P = .021), and most of the cognitive tests improved, without difference between the groups. In analysis with linear generalized models, the BMI decrease was associated with improvements in verbal memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and global cognition, after adjustment for education, gender, physical activity, and baseline tests. This association was strongest in younger seniors (for memory and fluency) and in APOE allele ϵ4 carriers (for executive function). Changes in homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, leptin and intake of energy, carbohydrates, and fats were associated with improvement in cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS Intentional weight loss through diet was associated with cognitive improvement in patients with MCI.
Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2012;13(1):210-7
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a recognised health problem with no convincing interventions to date. This randomised trial aimed to examine the efficacy of silymarin plus vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD. 36 patients were randomized to either group Ι or group ΙΙ. Group Ι was treated with 2 tablets of silymarin plus vitamin E per day, hypocaloric diet and exercise. Group ΙΙ was treated only with a hypocaloric diet. Study duration was 3 months for both groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed for all participants by liver biopsy. Patients in group Ι showed significant decrease in anthropometric measurements. Both groups experienced reductions in markers of NAFLD, however in group I, these reductions were independent of weight loss, whereas in group II, those who failed to lose 5% of body weight didn’t show a change in biochemical markers. Authors conclude that intervention with silymarin plus vitamin E, alone or along with other treatments, can help NAFLD patients who fail to lose weight with diet.
In chronic liver diseases caused by oxidative stress (alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, drug- and chemical-induced hepatic toxicity), the antioxidant medicines such as silymarin can have beneficial effect. Liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Insulin resistance and oxidative stress are the major pathogenetic mechanisms leading the hepatic cell injury in these patients. The silymarin exerts membrane-stabilizing and antioxidant activity, it promotes hepatocyte regeneration; furthermore it reduces the inflammatory reaction, and inhibits the fibrogenesis in the liver. These results have been established by experimental and clinical trials. According to open studies the long-term administration of silymarin significantly increased survival time of patients with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis. Based on the results of studies using methods of molecular biology, silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Furthermore, it exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect, and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein production and mRNA expression due to adhesion molecules. The chemopreventive effect of silymarin on HCC has been established in several studies using in vitro and in vivo methods; it can exert a beneficial effect on the balance of cell survival and apoptosis by interfering cytokines. In addition to this, anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory effect of silymarin on the development of metastases have also been detected. In some neoplastic diseases silymarin can be administered as adjuvant therapy as well.