Effectiveness of an Interdisciplinary Program Performed on Obese People Regarding Nutritional Habits and Metabolic Comorbidity: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(1)
Plain language summary
Obesity is a major health issue and research has shown that programs based on a number of different interventions, including diet, exercise and behavioural components, tend to be more successful than just focussing on one lifestyle habit. The aim of this randomised trial was to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary program based on healthy eating, exercise, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and health education in improving metabolic abnormalities, body mass index (BMI), and nutritional habits among obese adults. The intervention group received monthly group education sessions, four weekly exercise sessions including stretching and moderate aerobic training, monthly cognitive behavioural therapy sessions and monthly clinical and nutritional assessments for 1 year. The control group received standard care. The intervention group lost an average of 2.6 and 2.7 BMI points at the end of the 12 month intervention and at a further 12 months follow-up, respectively, whilst the average BMI of the control group did not change significantly. At baseline hardly any of the participants were considered to have adequate dietary habits. After 12 and 24 months there was a significant improvement in dietary habits in the intervention group only, with an increased intake of fruit, vegetables and fortified foods and a decreased intake in sweets, fats and oils. Both groups saw decreases in blood pressure, but the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group. Other metabolic markers, including blood sugar and lipid metabolism and liver function tests only improved in the intervention group. The authors conclude that a multidisciplinary team supported by community resources and led by nurses is able to achieve significant improvements in dietary habits and health outcomes in obese adults.
undefined: Obesity is an important public health problem. The combined use of different therapies performed by an interdisciplinary group can improve the management of this health issue. The main goal of this research is to determine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary program based on healthy eating, exercise, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and health education in improving metabolic comorbidity, Body Mass Index (BMI), and nutritional habits among obese adults, at short (12 months) and long term (24 months). A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at a community care center between February 2014 and February 2016. A random sampling was done (299), total population (3262). A sample of 74 subjects diagnosed with obesity (experimental group, = 37 and control group, = 37) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: obese people (BMI: >30 kg/m ) with metabolic comorbidity and bad nutritional habits. Exclusion criteria: other comorbidities. A 12-month interdisciplinary program (with pre-test, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up) was applied. Intervention is based on healthy eating, exercise, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The intervention had a positive effect on nutritional habits (F2;144 = 115.305; < 0.001). The experimental group increased fruit and vegetable intake (F2;144 = 39.604, < 0.001), as well as fortified foods (F2;144 = 10,076, < 0.001) and reduced fats, oils, and sweets F2;144 = 24,086, < 0.001). In the experimental group, a BMI reduction of 2.6 to 24 months was observed. At follow-up, no participant had inadequate nutritional habits, compared to 35.1% of the control group (χ22 = 33,398; < 0.001). There was also a positive response of metabolic comorbidities in the intervention group. The interdisciplinary program improved all participants' metabolic parameters, BMI, and nutritional habits while maintaining the long-term effects (24 months).
Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.
Plain language summary
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a relatively new field of scientific exploration where patients receive faeces from a healthy donor to help repopulate their intestinal tract with healthful bacteria. The gut microbiome is an ecosystem of an estimated 10~100 trillion microorganisms and there is increasing research on the important role these bacteria play in supporting our health and weight. This study reviews all trials involving faecal transports in patients with either clinical obesity or Metabolic syndrome to see if it helped improve weight, bmi or other metabolic parameters. Three studies with 76 male patients were included in this review and the results showed that FMT recipients had improved insulin sensitivity and reduced HbA1c glucose levels after 6 weeks, but these improvements were short-term only. There were no differences in bmi, cholesterol, markers and fasting glucose levels. The conclusion is that whilst FMT may confer benefits there is still much to understand about the fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery, as well as the host patient’s response.
undefined: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m , fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.
Evaluation of a 12-week lifestyle education intervention with or without partial meal replacement in Thai adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: a randomised trial.
Nutrition & diabetes. 2018;8(1):23
Plain language summary
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have markedly increased in many low- and middle-income countries, such as Thailand, as a consequence of economic growth, increased urbanisation and adoption of a ‘western’ lifestyle. Weight-loss interventions by reducing energy intake and increasing physical activity through behavioural modification are the mainstay of the treatment of obesity and MetS, but poor compliance is a problem. The aim of this randomised study was to evaluate the effect of a low-cost lifestyle education intervention (LEI) alone or a LEI with meal replacements (LEI + MR) in Thai adults with obesity and MetS for 12 weeks. The lifestyle education was delivered by a dietitian and comprised a group session at baseline with advice on diet and physical activity, followed by four individual sessions at weeks 2, 4, 8 and 12. In addition, the LEI + MR group also received two meal replacement formula meals per day. The LEI+MR group lost more weight than the LEI group, 2.86% versus 1.53%. Weight loss was maintained at 26 weeks after the end of the intervention, but had gone back to baseline after another 26 weeks. Overall, the LEI+MR group had better outcomes in blood sugar control and metabolic syndrome scores. The authors conclude that both LEI and LEI + MR are acceptable for Thai patients with obesity and MetS and lead to modest weight loss and improvement in MetS and blood sugar control, with the LEI + MR group showing greater benefits at 12 weeks
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES There have been no studies examining the efficacy of meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and metabolic syndrome (MS) improvement in Southeast Asians. Thus, we undertook a 12-week randomised trial to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle education intervention alone (LEI) or with partial MR (LEI + MR) in obese Thai adults with MS. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 110 patients were randomised to receive either LEI or LEI + MR. Both groups received LEI to achieve weight loss. LEI + MR group additionally received two MR daily to replace either breakfast, lunch or dinner. Mean ± SE body mass index of all participants was 34.6 ± 0.6 kg/m , mean ± SE age was 42.5 ± 1.1 years and 83% of patients were female. Both groups were compared for anthropometric and cardiometabolic indices at 12-week. Body weight was also compared at weeks 38 and 64. RESULTS At 12 weeks, both groups exhibited statistically significant percentage weight loss (%WL) compared to initial weight but greater %WL was observed in LEI + MR compared to LEI, 2.9% vs. 1.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). MS criteria such as waist circumference and blood pressure improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. However, improvement in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was only significant in LEI + MR, and more participants with impaired FPG at baseline in LEI + MR (42.9%) than LEI (19%) returned to normal FPG at 12 weeks (p < 0.05). HbA , fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in LEI + MR were significantly lower than with LEI. At the end of the 12-week intervention period, 16% of participants no longer fulfilled MS criteria. A statistically significant weight loss from baseline persisted until 38 weeks but no longer reached statistically significant difference between groups CONCLUSIONS LEI and LEI + MR were acceptable and led to improvement in weight and MS. LEI + MR group exhibited additional weight reduction and glycemic benefits at 12 weeks.