Nasoenteric tube doppler guided insertion. A case report and review of literature.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2022;(6):907-909
Nasoenteric tube placement is needed in patients with gastric enteral feeding intolerance or high risk of aspiration. Several techniques are described. Ultrasound is used more commonly for gastric tube placement, but also is described in enteral tube feeding placement. Doppler technique with cold water injection is not described in the literature. We describe a new and easy to realize technique. A case of a 65 years old male patient in the intensive care unit (ICU) with gastroparesis is described. Before beginning a prokinetic drug was administered. In this technique gastric tube placement was bedside assessed with ultrasound, and then the tube was progressed with cold water injection. Duodenal position was confirmed with doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound and doppler technique for nasoenteric tube placement could be a feasible technique to use in the ICU. More studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of the technique.
Carbamazepine efficacy in a severe electro-clinical presentation of SLC13A5-epilepsy.
Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 2022;(7):1095-1099
Recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene encoding the sodium-dependent citrate transporter are a recently identified cause of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. Here, we describe a child harboring a novel homozygous loss-of-function mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (c.1496C>T-p.Ser499Phe) and exhibiting an unusual extremely severe neonatal presentation with drug-resistant seizures and burst-suppression EEG pattern. Early carbamazepine use resulted in dramatic improvement both clinically and on EEG features. Follow-up from the neonatal period to the age of 4 years is documented. This case expands the electro-clinical phenotype associated with SLC13A5-related disease and confirms the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine in nonstructural early-onset epilepsies.
Variant Angina is Associated with Myocarditis.
Journal of inflammation research. 2022;:4939-4949
Background: Vasospastic angina (VSA) is caused by severe diffuse or segmental coronary artery spasms. Patients with variant angina have poor clinical outcomes, although nitrates and calcium blockers help improve patient symptoms because there is no understanding of the etiology and causal treatment. The present study investigated whether VSA is associated with inflammation of the heart. Patients and Methods: A total of 109 patients with VSA diagnosed by the presence of recurrent angina pectoris, typical electrocardiography, and coronary angiography were recruited, and 61 normal participants and 61 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery stenosis were recruited as controls. The plasma levels of 24 cytokines were measured using a magnetic Luminex assay, and endothelin-1 and histamine levels tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass-spectrometry, respectively, for all participants. Furthermore, four patients with VSA underwent 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Results: The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-13, PDL-1, IL-10, IL-6, IL-15, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β in patients with VSA were significantly higher than those in both normal controls and patients with AMI (p<0.001) but did not differ between normal controls and patients with AMI. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed that the left ventricle, coronary perivascular tissue volume, and coronary perivascular FDG uptake were significantly increased in all four patients. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that VSA patients have significantly elevated plasma cytokine levels and myocardial and pericoronary inflammation, suggesting that VSA is associated with myocarditis. This study provides novel insights into the etiology and treatment of VSA.
Uterine angiolipoleiomyoma. A case report and systematic literature review.
Folia medica. 2022;(2):341-347
Uterine angiolipoleiomyomas are rare, benign mixed mesenchymal lesions. A manifestation in the gynecological region is quite uncommon, with few cases described in the literature so far. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with uterine angiolipoleiomyoma, and the results of the conducted systematic review of the literature. The patient presented with a pelvic mass masquerading as a leiomyoma on the ultrasound and postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. At laparotomy, a large uterus was noticed and the histopathology set the diagnosis of angiolipoleiomyoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed negativity for Melan-A and HMB-45 melanoma-specific antibodies and positivity for Van Gieson and orcein histochemical stains.
Dengue infection triggered immune mediated necrotizing myopathy in children: a case report and literature review.
Pediatric rheumatology online journal. 2022;(1):40
BACKGROUND Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a subgroup of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies manifesting with progressive weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and necrotizing myopathic features on muscle biopsy. There is a paucity of data on the clinical presentation of IMNM in children. We report a paediatric patient who developed anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (anti-HMGCR)-positive necrotizing myopathy after recent dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION A previously healthy 9-year-old boy presented with acute proximal muscle weakness after recovery from dengue infection. Five days after the fever subsided, he could not stand from a squatting position. He denied having skin rash, arthritis, or other systemic features. He had marked elevation of CK level of 30,833 mg/dL and was put on steroid therapy. The patient initially responded to oral prednisolone, however the weakness persisted and muscle enzymes increased as steroids were decreased. He was then referred to our hospital for further assessment. Subsequent investigation revealed anti-HMGCR positivity along with specific histopathological findings consistent with IMNM. The patient was treated with six cycles of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) monthly, then followed by a gradual taper of prednisolone and oral methotrexate weekly with complete recovery in motor power. CONCLUSIONS Our report presents a child with clinical manifestations of IMNM which can be categorized as acute onset of muscle weakness following dengue infection. Two key points supporting a diagnosis in this case are clinical response after immunosuppressive therapy and absence of rashes found in juvenile dermatomyositis.
Effective long-term management of parathyromatosis-related refractory hypercalcemia with a combination of denosumab and cinacalcet treatment.
Hormones (Athens, Greece). 2022;(1):171-176
Parathyromatosis is a rare cause of persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia due to the presence of hyperfunctioning foci of parathyroid tissue in the neck and/or mediastinum. We describe the case of a male patient who presented with severe hypercalcemia and a left-sided palpable parathyroid mass. Over the course of the next 18 years, the patient underwent neck exploration surgery on multiple occasions due to recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism and refractory hypercalcemia, complicated by nephrolithiasis and impairment of renal function, while bone mineral density was preserved. Histological findings and the natural course of the disease were consistent with parathyromatosis. Medical interventions with oral bisphosphonates or high-dose cinacalcet failed to control the patient's hypercalcemia. The combination of monthly denosumab and cinacalcet was, however, successful in maintaining the patient's serum calcium in the normal/upper-normal range over a 36-month period with no significant side effects. This is the first report of off-label denosumab use in combination with cinacalcet in the long-term management of parathyromatosis-related refractory hypercalcemia.
Biallelic PROKR2 variants and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a case report and a literature review.
Endocrine journal. 2022;(7):831-838
Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder that causes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency and sexual immaturity. CHH may accompany an abnormal sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS) or no such manifestation (normosmic-CHH). This unusual combination of manifestations is explained by the fact that GnRH neurons originate in the olfactory placode and migrate to the forebrain during embryogenesis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with normosmic-CHH, who also had obesity, type 2 diabetes and intellectual disability. He was noticed to have sexual immaturity (small testes with no pubic hair) at age 20 years, when diabetic ketoacidosis developed. Basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH (1.0→12.0 IU/L) and FSH (1.9→6.1 IU/L) were detectable but low. The results of the T&T olfactometer and the Alinamin test were definitely normal, with an anatomically normal olfactory system on MRI. Sequencing of 22 CHH-related genes was performed, and compound heterozygous PROKR2 variants were identified: one was a previously known loss-of-function variant (p.Trp178Ser) and the other was a nonsense variant (p.Trp212*). Through a literature review, we found 22 patients (including our patient) with CHH due to biallelic PROKR2 variants, which led us to recognize that most of the patients (86%) were diagnosed with KS. Clinical observations in this study indicate that, even though they have CHH, biallelic PROKR2 variant carriers may have a normal olfactory system as well as presumably normal migration of GnRH neurons. This suggests that the PROK2-PROKR2 pathway affects the function of GnRH neurons after their migration.
Local anesthetic systemic toxicity in the pediatric patient.
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2022;:325.e3-325.e6
Lidocaine and prilocaine are local anesthetics, a class of medications which are frequently used in clinical medicine to minimize pain in a variety of procedures. They are commonly found in over-the-counter products such as topical anesthetic creams advertised to relieve localized muscle and joint pain. While safe and well-tolerated when used appropriately, an overdose of these anesthetics increases the risk for local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST), which in severe cases can present with seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, and ultimately cardiovascular collapse. The reduced muscle mass of pediatric patients puts them at an increased risk of LAST due to the depot effect of the systemically absorbed anesthetic. Methemoglobinemia may also be associated with local anesthetic toxicity. Our case involves a previously healthy 15-month-old female who presented to one of our networks' emergency departments in status epilepticus following an accidental ingestion of a tube of 2.5% lidocaine/2.5% prilocaine cream. Her seizure activity was initially resistant to intraosseous benzodiazepine administration, but ultimately resolved following administration of lipid emulsion and sodium bicarbonate. Additionally, the patient had refractory hypoxia on the monitor which resolved shortly after administration of methylene blue. After stabilization, the patient was transferred to the Pediatric ICU and ultimately made a complete recovery. LAST is a life-threatening presentation which requires early recognition by clinicians, as well as an understanding of the appropriate treatment modalities. We review the assessment and management of LAST, with special focus on the pediatric patient.
Pneumocystis jirovecii-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome-like phenomenon in a child with leukaemia: a case report and literature review.
BMC pediatrics. 2022;(1):410
BACKGROUND Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) refers to the phenomenon of intense immune responses against pathogens in patients with AIDS undergoing antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immune function, resulting in functional impairment of multiple organs. Non-AIDS immunosuppressed hosts may also develop similar manifestations to IRIS during immune recovery. CASE PRESENTATION An 8-year-old girl presented with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was admitted for scheduled chemotherapy treatment. During chemotherapy, she experienced pancytopenia and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, which was diagnosed based on the abnormal shadows observed on chest computed tomography, the elevation of serum β-D-glucan, and the positive mNGS results of Pneumocystis jirovecii in both sputum and blood. After treatment with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, sulfamethoxazole, and caspofungin, aggravation of lung lesions was discovered and severe interstitial lung disease developed in a short period along with a rapidly increasing leukocyte count. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy was given, but lung function did not improve, and she finally died after the withdrawal of medical care. CONCLUSIONS For patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia infected with Pneumocystis jirovecii, the rapid aggravation of pulmonary lesions in the process of blood recovery and immune reconstitution should raise vigilance against the possibility of IRIS-like reactions. The use of granulocyte stimulating factors may aggravate the inflammatory response in the lungs. The timing, dosage, and duration of treatment of glucocorticoids and the impact of high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy on the prognosis of patients should be explored in further research.
Group-Based and Individually Delivered LiFE: Content Evaluation and Predictors of Training Response - A Dose-Response Analysis.
Clinical interventions in aging. 2022;:637-652
Introduction: Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) is an effective, individually delivered fall prevention program but comes with substantial resource requirements; hence, a group-format was developed (gLiFE). This study 1) evaluates the program content of two different LiFE formats (group vs individual) and 2) examines the relationship between predictors of training response (dose) and improvements in balance, strength, and physical activity (PA) (response). Material and Methods: The analysis included n = 252 (gLiFE = 126, LiFE = 126) community-dwelling older adults (78.6±5.2 years). LiFE was administered in seven sessions either in a group (gLiFE: 8-12 participants) or individually at home (LiFE). Questionnaire-based, descriptive content evaluation (frequency distributions) included reported frequency of practice (days/week, number of activities), activity preferences, safety, intensity, integrability of activities, and acceptance after 6 months of LiFE practice. Predictors (ie, dose [reported frequency and intensity], safety, and integrability of activities) for improvements in balance, strength, and PA were analyzed using radar charts. Results: In both formats, 11.2 activities were practiced on average. Strength activities were more frequently selected than balance. Content evaluation showed some marginal advantages for the LiFE participants for selected aspects. The effects on balance, strength, and PA were nearly similar in both groups. Participants who performed balance activities more frequently (≥4 days/week) scored better in the balance and PA domain. Those who performed strength activities more frequently (≥4 days/week) performed better in all three outcomes. Higher perceived safety was associated with better performance. Those who reported activities as "not physically exhausting" performed better in all three outcomes. Those who found activities easily integrable into daily routines scored higher in the balance and strength domain. Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, both program formats are comparable with respect to content evaluation and effects. Participants need to perceive the activities as safe, not exhausting, and should practice ≥4 days/week to generate a high benefit from the intervention. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03462654. Registered on 12 March 2018.