Effects of chronic consumption of specific fruit (berries, cherries and citrus) on cognitive health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Wang, Y, Haskell-Ramsay, C, Gallegos, JL, Lodge, JK
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2023;(1):7-22
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OBJECTIVES The cognitive-protective effects related to the consumption of a variety of fruits are supported by several intervention studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the magnitude of effects following chronic (≥1 week) consumption of frozen, freeze-dried powder including extracts and juices of fruits, covering berries, cherries and citrus, on cognition and mood in adults. METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and psycARTICLES were searched from inception until February, 2021. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials assessing memory, executive function, psychomotor speed, mood and mini mental state examination in adult participants ≥18 years of age. Cognition was tested by global or domain specific tasks. RESULTS Out of 13,861 articles identified, 16 papers were included; 11 studies provided suitable data for meta-analysis. Fourteen studies reported improvement or trend for improvement in cognition, five studies assessed mood and one study supplementing grape juice found trend for mood improvement. From the meta-analysis, cherry juice supplementation was suggested to improve psychomotor speed by -0.37 of standardised mean difference (95% CI [-0.74, 0.01]) in reaction time (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The meta-analysis did not sufficiently support a role for fruits or fruit forms to improve cognition and mood.
The role of VCAM-1 in diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Xu, Y, Hou, H, Zhao, L
Journal of diabetes and its complications. 2023;(1):108380
OBJECTIVE Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) plays a regulatory role in inflammatory diseases. However, the exact role of VCAM-1 in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear, and there is a lack of meta-analyses. METHODS The role of VCAM-1 in DR was screened by database searching. A random effects model was used, and the estimated mean difference was evaluated. RESULTS Twenty articles were included. The level of VCAM-1 increased significantly in the DR group compared with the control group (SMD: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.34-1.01, P < 0.0001). VCAM-1 levels correlated with sample size and DR type, method and severity based on subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION A high level of VCAM-1 is present in DR patients and is related to the severity of DR. Therefore, VCAM-1 is a potential detection biomarker for DR.
Aspirin in primary prevention and the risk of heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.
de Oliveira, ABM, Luchiari, B, Bonilha, I, Barreto, J, Nogueira, ACC, Ceniccola, GD, Polanczyk, CA, Sposito, AC, de Carvalho, LSF
ESC heart failure. 2023;(2):1488-1491
Association of Controlling Nutritional Status Score With Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Huang, L, He, R, Sun, X, Lv, J, Chen, S
This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to examine the association between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies from their inceptions to December 12, 2021 to identify studies investigating the association of the CONUT score with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in CAD patients. Twelve studies (36,198 CAD) patients satisfied the criteria. Comparison of the high with low CONUT score, the pooled multivariate adjusted risk ratios (RR) was 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.36-2.32) for MACEs and 1.45 (95% CI 1.27-1.66) for all-cause mortality, respectively. When compared with patients with normal nutrition, malnourished (defined by the CONUT score ≥2) patients conferred a 52% increased risk of MACEs. Additionally, per point CONUT score increment was associated with 15% and 11% higher risk of MACEs and all-cause mortality, respectively. Higher CONUT score independently predicts the MACEs all-cause mortality in CAD patients. Estimation of nutritional status using the CONUT score could be helpful for improving risk classification of CAD.
Effect of Liposuction on Body Weight and Serum Concentrations of Leptin, Lipids, Glucose, and Insulin: A Meta-Analysis.
Gómez-Sámano, MÁ, Guerrero-Castillo, AP, Abarca-Arroyo, JA, Albuja-González, EC, García-Bonilla, HA, Espinosa-Salazar, HD, Villanueva-Gómez-Crespo, MT, Catzin-Kuhlmann, A, López-Gatell, H, Tlapanco-Beltrán, CA, et al
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2023;(3):402e-411e
BACKGROUND Abdominal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Central fat removal procedures such as liposuction, lipectomy, and abdominoplasty are among the most common surgical procedures. The impact of the latter on the former is controversial and understudied. The authors aimed to explore the effect of subcutaneous fat elimination procedures on insulin resistance measures and adipokine levels. METHODS Relevant studies regarding the effects of surgical subcutaneous fat removal on glucose, insulin, adipokines, and lipid metabolism, as well as blood pressure, were identified by searching PubMed and Ovid-Cochrane without limits in date, type of publication, or language. After the selection process, 24 studies were obtained. The results of the articles were summarized using descriptive statistics. For the final analysis, a randomized effects model was used to evaluate heterogeneity; averages and meta-analytic differences were expressed with a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS All studies reported a reduction in weight (-2.64 kg; 95% CI, -4.32 to -0.96; P = 0.002; I 2 = 36%; P of I 2 < 0.001) and body mass index after liposuction. A significant improvement in triglycerides (-10.06 mg/dL; 95% CI, -14.03 to -6.09; P < 0.001; I 2 = 48%; P of I 2 = 0.05), serum glucose concentration (-4.25 mg/dL; 95% CI, -5.93 to -2.56; P < 0.001; I 2 = 68%; P of I 2 < 0.001), serum insulin concentration (-2.86 μIU/mL; 95% CI, -3.75 to -1.97; P < 0.001; I 2 = 59%; P of I 2 = 0.003), and serum leptin concentration (-7.70 ng/mL; 95% CI, -11.49 to -3.92; P = 0.0001; I 2 = 96%; P of I 2 < 0.001) was consistently observed. CONCLUSION In addition to weight loss, there is a significant decrease in leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin serum concentrations after liposuction, a fact that should be considered in future discussions.
Higher dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) reduces the risk of cardio-metabolic risk factors among adults: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
Farhangi, MA, Mohammad-Rezaei, A
International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift fur Vitamin- und Ernahrungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. 2023;(2):178-192
Background: Numerous studies have revealed the protective role of dietary antioxidants against hypertension and diabetes. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated the possible role of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) against metabolic parameters in the adult population. Methods: A literature search of authentic electronic resources including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Cochrane had been performed to retrieve the qualified observational studies that reported the mean plus/minus the SD for the parameter in subjects of the highest versus lowest dietary TAC categories up to July 2020. Results: Totally, the number of included studies was 13 for fasting blood sugar (FBS), 12 for systolic blood pressure (SBP), and 12 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with the participants' number of 26349. The results of the current study showed that being at highest category of TAC significantly reduces serum FBS (WMD: -2.381; CI: -3.445, -1.316; P<0.001), SBP (WMD: -1.080; CI: -1.458, -0.701; P<0.001) and DBP (WMD: -0.854; CI: -1.655, -0.052; P<0.001), while no significant difference in the serum insulin, HOMA-IR values, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (P=0.37) and hypertension (HTN) (P=0.09) was observed. Subgroup analysis revealed the geographical location, dietary assessment tool, sample size, and gender as possible sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion: Higher intake of dietary TAC was associated with reduced SBP, DBP, and FBS in the current observational studies of this meta-analysis. These findings further confirm the clinical importance of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of different metabolic disorders.
Optimizing targeted drug selection in combination therapy for patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of safety.
Xie, R, Wu, J, Shang, B, Bi, X, Jiang, W, Cao, C, Zhou, A, Shi, H, Shou, J
Cancer medicine. 2023;(6):7051-7064
OBJECTIVE For patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the dose of targeted agents was recommended in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We performed a network meta-analysis to describe a categorized safety ranking profile and assess the adaptability of the combination options of targeted agents. METHODS The targeted agents refer to vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGF-TKIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Randomized controlled trials comparing these drugs were enrolled in a Bayesian model network meta-analysis. RESULTS Nineteen clinical trials with 11 treatments and 10,615 patients were included. For grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs), compared with placebo, lenvatinib plus everolimus showed worse safety than all other treatments except for lenvatinib (placebo vs. OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.78). Everolimus was generally the safest agent (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.50-3.14). Sorafenib arose the least renal AEs (placebo vs. OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.06-11.64), whereas lenvatinib plus everolimus had the highest risk of renal toxicity (placebo vs. 0.17 95% CI 0.01-1.02). For gastrointestinal symptoms, everolimus was related to much lower toxicity than other agents. In the respiratory safety analysis, tivozanib (placebo vs. OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07-0.31) and axitinib (OR 5.43, 95% CI 3.26-9.22) were the riskiest agents. In terms of hepatobiliary (placebo vs. OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.09-2.10) and hemotoxicity (placebo vs. OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.14-7.68) related AEs, lenvatinib was found to be the safest treatment compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Everolimus, with the best safety of grade ≥ 3, gastrointestinal, and respiratory AEs, was more likely to be considered for combination therapies. Lenvatinib appears to be the safest for blood/lymphatic and hepatobiliary AEs. For patients with renal disorders, sorafenib arises the least renal toxicity AEs. This study will guide treatment options and optimize the trial design for advanced or metastatic RCC.
Association Between the Variability of Glycated Hemoglobin and Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.
Zhai, L, Lu, J, Cao, X, Zhang, J, Yin, Y, Tian, H
Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme. 2023;(2):103-113
Visit-to-visit variability of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a marker of long-term glycemic fluctuation, which has been related to increased risk of macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The association between HbA1c variability and retinopathy in patients with T2DM, however, has been inconsistent in previous studies. In order to fully evaluate the above association, we conducted a meta-analysis. Observational studies related to the aim of the meta-analysis were identified by search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. Studies with HbA1c variability evaluated as the standard deviation (SD) and/or the coefficients of variation (CV) of HbA1c were included. The results were analyzed using a random-effects model that incorporated potential heterogeneity between studies. Twelve observational studies involving 44 662 T2DM patients contributed to the meta-analysis. Overall, 5150 (11.5%) patients developed retinopathy. Pooled results showed that compared to patients with lower HbA1c variability, T2DM patients with higher HbA1c-SD (relative risk [RR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 1.78, p<0.001, I2=34%) and higher HbA1c-CV (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.59, p=0.02, I2=0%) were both associated with higher risk of DR. For studies with HbA1c-SD, the association was not significantly affected by study characteristics such as country, study design, mean age, disease duration, adjustment of mean HbA1c, or quality scores (p for subgroup difference all>0.05). In conclusion, higher HbA1c variability may be associated with an increased risk of retinopathy in patients with T2DM.
Selenium and immune function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental human studies.
Filippini, T, Fairweather-Tait, S, Vinceti, M
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2023;(1):93-110
BACKGROUND Selenium is an essential trace element with both beneficial and detrimental effects on health depending on dose and chemical form. Currently, there is debate on recommendations for selenium supplementation as a public health measure to improve immune function and reduce infectious disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVES We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies assessing the effect of selenium supplementation on immunity-related outcomes in healthy people. METHODS We undertook a search of published and unpublished studies in literature databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov up to 17 October, 2022, and performed a meta-analysis comparing the effects on immunity-related outcomes between Se-supplemented versus control arms. Whenever possible we assessed the nonlinear relation using a dose-response approach. RESULTS 9 trials were included, 5 in North America, and 4 in Europe, with a duration between 8 and 48 weeks and supplementation of both inorganic and organic selenium forms. Selenium supplementation did not substantially affect immunoglobulin or white blood cell concentrations, and the dose-response meta-analysis indicated that an increase in plasma selenium concentrations above 100 μg/L did not further increase IgA levels nor T cells. An inverted U-shaped relation emerged for NK cell count, with a lower number of these cells both below and above 120 μg/L. The only beneficial effect of selenium supplementation was the increased activity for NK lysis, but the available data did not permit dose-response analysis. Cytokine levels were substantially unaffected by selenium supplementation. CONCLUSIONS Although some of the data suggested beneficial effects of selenium supplementation on immune function, the overall picture appears to be inconsistent and heterogeneous due to differences in trial duration and interventions, plus evidence of null and even detrimental effects. Overall, the evidence that we extracted from the literature in this systematic review does not support the need to supplement selenium beyond the recommended dietary intake to obtain beneficial effects on immune function. This trial was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42022312280).
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: Are clinical trial benefits for heart failure reflected in real-world clinical practice? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Hinton, W, Ansari, AS, Whyte, MB, McGovern, AP, Feher, MD, Munro, N, de Lusignan, S
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. 2023;(2):501-515
AIM: To determine the absolute risk reduction (ARR) of heart failure events in people treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science for observational studies published to 9 May 2022 that explored the association between SGLT2 inhibitors and any indication for heart failure (including new diagnosis or hospitalization for heart failure) in type 2 diabetes. Identified studies were independently screened by two reviewers and assessed for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Eligible studies with comparable outcome data were pooled for meta-analysis using random-effects models, reporting hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The ARR per 100 person-years was determined overall, and in subgroups with and without baseline cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS From 43 eligible studies, with a total of 4 818 242 participants from 17 countries, 21 were included for meta-analysis. SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59-0.72) overall and both in those with CVD (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.89) and without CVD (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.71). Risk reduction for hospitalization for heart failure in people with a history of CVD (ARR 1.17, 95% CI 0.78-1.55) was significantly greater than for those without CVD (ARR 0.39, 95% CI 0.32-0.47). The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one event of hospitalization for heart failure was 86 (95% CI 65-128) person-years of treatment for the CVD group and 256 (95% CI 215-316) person-years for those without CVD. CONCLUSIONS Real-world SGLT2 inhibitor use supports randomized trial data for the size effect of reduced hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetes, although with a much lower ARR in people without CVD.