A systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical and clinical studies on the efficacy of ginger for the treatment of fatty liver disease.
Phytotherapy research : PTR. 2022;(3):1182-1193
Fatty liver disease (FLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease is closely related to obesity and insulin resistance. Ginger has hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects and acts as an insulin sensitizer. This study aims to evaluate the effect of ginger supplementation on the fatty liver. A comprehensive search of Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science/ISI, and Cochrane databases was conducted without time or language restrictions. Eighteen eligible studies were identified, including 17 in-vivo experiments in quantitative analysis and 3 clinical trials in qualitative analysis. The present study provides comprehensive evidence of the efficacy of ginger to improve the liver levels of cholesterol (-5.60 mg/g), triglycerides (TG, -4.28 mg/g), malondialdehyde (-3.16 nmol/mg), catalase (CAT) (3.35 nmol/mg), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 3.01 U/mg), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, -2.85 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, -0.98 U/L), TG (-4.98 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, -3.94 mg/dL), total cholesterol (TC, -3.45 mg/dL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 1.27 mg/dL), and fasting blood sugar (FBS, -2.54 mg/dL). Ginger administration may reduce many clinical aspects of FLD by several mechanisms, including insulin-sensitive effects, stimulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes, reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), having antidyslipidemic activities, and reducing hepatic fat content. However, future clinical trials are essential to investigate the clinical application of ginger in this area.
Meta-Analysis of Novel Glucose-Lowering Agents in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Without Pre-existing Heart Failure.
The American journal of cardiology. 2022;:184-188
The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on oxidative stress markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2022;:121-128
BACKGROUND & AIMS Recent trial studies have found that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation beneficially reduces oxidative stress markers but, there is no definitive consensus on this context. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on oxidative stress parameters. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases until September 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing CLA supplementation effects on oxidative markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-isoprostanesF2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Summary estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using a random-effects model. RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs were included. The obtained results show that CLA supplementation caused a significant decrease in MDA concentrations (Hedges's: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.70 to -0.01, P = 0.04, I2 = 62.1%, n = 7), and also significantly increased 8-iso-PGF2α levels (Hedges's: 1.45; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.91, P˂0.001, I2 = 42.9%, n = 4). However, the results showed that supplementation with CLA did not significantly change the concentrations of GPx (Hedges's: 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.64, P = 0.08, I2 = 0.0%, n = 3). CONCLUSION It seems this supplement can be used as a dietary supplement to improve oxidative stress parameters. However, further studies are required to demonstrate present results.
Geographic distribution of metabolic syndrome and its components in the general adult population: A meta-analysis of global data from 28 million individuals.
Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2022;:109924
AIMS: Better knowledge of the global metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and its components is a prerequisite to curb the related burden. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Africa Journal Online, Global Index Medicus up to May 23, 2021. Prevalence pooling was done with a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS In total, 1,129 prevalence data (28,193,768 participants) were included. The MetS global prevalence varied from 12.5% (95 %CI: 10.2-15.0) to 31.4% (29.8-33.0) according to the definition considered. The prevalence was significantly higher in Eastern Mediterranean Region and Americas and increased with country's level of income. The global prevalence was 45.1% (95 %CI: 42.1-48.2) for ethnic-specific central obesity, 42.6% (40.3-44.9) for systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg, 40.2% (37.8-42.5) for HDL-cholesterol < 1.03 for men or < 1.29 mmol/L for women, 28.9% (27.4-30.5) for serum triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, and 24.5% (22.5-26.6) for fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS This study reveals that MetS and its related cardiometabolic components are highly prevalent worldwide. This study calls for more aggressive and contextualized public health interventions to tackle these conditions.
Multidomain lifestyle interventions for cognition and the risk of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
International journal of nursing studies. 2022;:104236
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment and dementia have emerged as one of the greatest global challenges for health and social care. Multidomain interventions that target several risk factors simultaneously may achieve optimal preventive effects for dementia. OBJECTIVE This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multidomain lifestyle interventions for improving cognition and reducing the risk of dementia. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were systematically searched from inception to April 17, 2021. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed multidomain lifestyle interventions on the outcomes of cognition or dementia risk were included. The standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) was calculated using random-effects models. Risk of bias was assessed using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool for randomised trials (RoB2), and the certainty of evidence was assessed using the five Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. RESULTS Seventeen RCTs involving 12,312 participants were included. The meta-analysis indicated that multidomain lifestyle interventions showed small but significant effects on both the risk of dementia (SMD = -0.11; 95%CI, -0.18 to -0.05; P <0.001; I2 = 0%; 6RCTs, 1981 participants) and the cognitive composite score (SMD = 0.10; 95%CI, 0.02 to 0.17; P = 0.012; I2 = 27.5%; 7 RCTs, 2643 participants). No significant improvements were found in global cognition (SMD = -0.04; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.04; P = 0.330; I2 = 38.3%; 9 RCTs, 3740 participants). CONCLUSIONS Multidomain lifestyle interventions have the potential to reduce the risk of dementia (high-certainty evidence) and improve the cognitive composite score (moderate-certainty evidence). There is no moderate- or high-certainty evidence that multidomain interventions improve global cognition. Future large-scale, high-quality studies are required to determine the effects of multidomain interventions on global cognition or other cognitive domains. REGISTRATION The systematic review and meta-analysis have been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021260122).
Efficacy and safety of adjuvant curcumin therapy in ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2022;:115041
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Curcumin, an active polyphenol extracted from Traditional Chinese medicine Curcuma longa (turmeric), has shown many health-related benefits and pharmacological effects. Adjuvant curcumin therapy for ulcerative colitis has become increasingly popular, but its efficacy and safety of which is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant curcumin therapy in ulcerative colitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, VIP, WanFang, and SinoMed databases were searched from inception to June 2021, to identify all randomized controlled clinical trials with adjuvant curcumin therapy in ulcerative colitis. The primary outcomes were clinical and endoscopic remission, and subgroup analyses were also performed. RESULTS Six randomized trials with a total of 385 participants were included in this study. Qualified trials recommended that adjuvant curcumin therapy for ulcerative colitis was effective in inducing clinical remission (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.89), but not in clinical improvement (RR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.61), endoscopic remission (RR = 4.17, 95% CI 0.63 to 27.71) or endoscopic improvement (RR = 4.13, 95% CI 0.20 to 87.07). Included studies showed that appropriate dosage, formation, longer duration, and topical medication may have a greater potential advantage. No severe adverse effects had been reported. CONCLUSIONS Available evidence suggested that adjuvant curcumin therapy may be effective for clinical remission in ulcerative colitis patients without causing severe adverse effects. The appropriate methods of administration can achieve better curative effect, which requires further study to verify.
Association between gaseous air pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987). 2022;(Pt A):118336
BACKGROUND Studies have linked gaseous air pollutants to multiple health effects via inflammatory pathways. Several major inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) have also been considered as predictors of cardiovascular disease. However, there has been no meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between gaseous air pollutants and these typical biomarkers of inflammation to date. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the overall associations between short-term and long-term exposures to ambient ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon dioxide (CO) and major inflammatory biomarkers including CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6 and TNF-α. METHODS A meta-analysis was conducted for publications from PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and EMBASE databases up to Feb 1st, 2021. RESULTS The meta-analysis included 38 studies conducted among 210,438 participants. Generally, we only observed significant positive associations between short-term exposures to gaseous air pollutants and inflammatory biomarkers. For a 10 μg/m3 increase in short-term exposure to O3, NO2, and SO2, there were significant increases of 1.05% (95%CI: 0.09%, 2.02%), 1.60% (95%CI: 0.49%, 2.72%), and 10.44% (95%CI: 4.20%, 17.05%) in CRP, respectively. Meanwhile, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was also associated with a 4.85% (95%CI: 1.10%, 8.73%) increase in TNF-α. Long-term exposures to gaseous air pollutants were not statistically associated with these biomarkers, but the study numbers were relatively small. Subgroup analyses found more apparent associations in studies with better study design, higher quality, and smaller sample size. Meanwhile, the associations also varied across studies conducted in different geographical regions. CONCLUSION Short-term exposure to gaseous air pollutants is associated with increased levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers, suggesting that a systemic inflammatory state is activated upon exposure. More studies on long-term exposure to gaseous air pollutants and inflammatory biomarkers are warranted to verify the associations.
Association between transcription factor 7-like 2 C/T polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy risk: a meta-analysis.
Ophthalmic research. 2022
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested a close association between transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy (DR) susceptibility. However, the published results were inconsistent. This meta-analysis was conducted to review and examine the relationship between TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T polymorphism and DR risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS Online databases were searched and the related studies were identified in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the statistical power. Moreover, heterogeneity test, sensitivity accumulative analysis and publication bias were conducted to measure the statistical effect. RESULT 6 studies involving 12,982 subjects were included in this meta-analysis to assess the association between rs7903146 C/T polymorphism and DR susceptibility. The synthetic results indicated that the mutation of rs7903146 C/T polymorphism maybe accompany with an increased risk for DR (T vs. C: OR=1.26, 95%CI=1.00-1.60, P=0.05, I2=83.5%; TT vs. CC: OR=1.79 95%CI=1.12-2.86, P=0.02, I2=80.2%; TT vs. CC+CT: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.38-1.92, P<0.01, I2=32.3%). Moreover, the subgroup analysis also demonstrated an increasing risk for DR with T mutations in Caucasian descendants. CONCLUSION The current evidences meta-analysis suggested that the TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T polymorphism might be play an important role in DR susceptibility.
Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and DNA methylation in offspring: an epigenome-wide meta-analysis.
Clinical epigenetics. 2022;(1):59
BACKGROUND Unbalanced iron homeostasis in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth and childhood health outcomes. DNA methylation has been suggested as a potential underlying mechanism linking environmental exposures such as micronutrient status during pregnancy with offspring health. We performed a meta-analysis on the association of maternal early-pregnancy serum ferritin concentrations, as a marker of body iron stores, and cord blood DNA methylation. We included 1286 mother-newborn pairs from two population-based prospective cohorts. Serum ferritin concentrations were measured in early pregnancy. DNA methylation was measured with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). We examined epigenome-wide associations of maternal early-pregnancy serum ferritin and cord blood DNA methylation using robust linear regression analyses, with adjustment for confounders and performed fixed-effects meta-analyses. We additionally examined whether associations of any CpGs identified in cord blood persisted in the peripheral blood of older children and explored associations with other markers of maternal iron status. We also examined whether similar findings were present in the association of cord blood serum ferritin concentrations with cord blood DNA methylation. RESULTS Maternal early-pregnancy serum ferritin concentrations were inversely associated with DNA methylation at two CpGs (cg02806645 and cg06322988) in PRR23A and one CpG (cg04468817) in PRSS22. Associations at two of these CpG sites persisted at each of the follow-up time points in childhood. Cord blood serum ferritin concentrations were not associated with cord blood DNA methylation levels at the three identified CpGs. CONCLUSION Maternal early-pregnancy serum ferritin concentrations were associated with lower cord blood DNA methylation levels at three CpGs and these associations partly persisted in older children. Further studies are needed to uncover the role of these CpGs in the underlying mechanisms of the associations of maternal iron status and offspring health outcomes.
Coffee and Caffeine Consumption and Risk of Kidney Stones: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2022;(1):9-14.e1
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE Coffee and caffeine consumption have been associated with a lower risk of kidney stones in observational studies. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the causal nature of these associations. STUDY DESIGN Mendelian randomization analysis. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS Independent genetic variants associated with coffee and caffeine consumption at the genome-wide significance level were selected from previously published meta-analyses as instrumental variables. Summary-level data for kidney stones were obtained from the UK Biobank study (6,536 cases and 388,508 noncases) and the FinnGen consortium (3,856 cases and 172,757 noncases). EXPOSURE Genetically predicted coffee and caffeine consumption. OUTCOME Clinically diagnosed kidney stones. ANALYTICAL APPROACH Mendelian randomization methods were used to calculate causal estimates. Estimates from the 2 sources were combined using the fixed-effects meta-analysis methods. RESULTS Genetically predicted coffee and caffeine consumption was associated with a lower risk of kidney stones in the UK Biobank study, and the associations were directionally similar in the FinnGen consortium. The combined odds ratio of kidney stones was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.46-0.79; P < 0.001) per a genetically predicted 50% increase in coffee consumption and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94; P = 0.005) per a genetically predicted 80-mg increase in caffeine consumption. LIMITATIONS Genetic influence on kidney stone risk via pathways not involving coffee or caffeine. CONCLUSIONS Using genetic data, this study provides evidence that higher coffee and caffeine consumption may cause a reduction in kidney stones.