Quadriceps tendon grafts does not cause patients to have inferior subjective outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction than do hamstring grafts: a 2-year prospective randomised controlled trial.
British journal of sports medicine. 2020;(3):183-187
OBJECTIVE We performed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) using either quadriceps tendon graft (QT) or semitendinosus/gracilis hamstring (STG) graft. We compared subjective outcome (primary outcome) and knee stability, donor site morbidity and function (secondary outcomes). METHODS From 2013 to 2015, we included 99 adults with isolated ACL injuries in the RCT. Fifty patients were randomised to QT grafts and 49 to STG grafts and followed for 2 years. Patient evaluated outcomes were performed by subjective International Knee Documentation Committee, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Kujala and Tegner activity scores. Knee laxity was measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer. Donor site morbidity was evaluated by the 'donor site-related functional problems following ACLR score'. One-leg hop test tested limp strength symmetry. RESULTS At 2-year follow-up, there was no difference between the two graft groups regarding subjective patient outcome, knee stability and reoperations. Also, at 2 years, donor site symptoms were present in 27% of patients in the QT group and 50% of patients in the STG group. The donor site morbidity score was 14 and 22 for the QT and STG, respectively. Hop test demonstrated lower limp symmetry for QT graft than STG graft of 91% and 97% respectively. CONCLUSION QT graft for ACLR did not result in inferior subjective outcome compared with STG graft. However, QT graft was associated with lower donor site morbidity than STG grafts but resulted in more quadriceps muscle strength deficiency than hamstring grafts. Both graft types had similar knee stability outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT02173483.
The efficacy of regular penis-root masturbation, versus Kegel exercise in the treatment of primary premature ejaculation: A quasi-randomised controlled trial.
To explore the efficacy of regular penis-root masturbation (PRM) versus Kegel exercise (KE) in the treatment of primary premature ejaculation (PPE). This study was a prospective quasi-randomised controlled trial. Thirty-seven heterosexual males with PPE were selected according to the time sequence of outpatient consultations and the preliminary results of a pre-experiment and were assigned to an PRM group and a KE group. Differences in intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were compared between the two groups. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. Among the 37 PPE patients, 18 performed PRM and 19 patients performed KE. The IELTs of patients who performed PRM and KE were significantly prolonged before treatment, and the difference after treatment was statistically significant (p < .05). Compared with the KE group, the IELT prolongation effect in the PRM group was more significant PRM (p < .05). The PEDT scores of patients after performing PRM and KE were significantly lower than those before performing these exercises (p < .05). Compared with the KE group, the PEDT scores of the PRM group exhibited a greater decrease (p < .05). Thus, both PRM and KE have therapeutic effects on PPE. Compared with KE, PRM is more effective in the treatment of PPE.
Role of the carotid chemoreceptors in insulin-mediated sympathoexcitation in humans.
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. 2020;(1):R173-R181
We examined the contribution of the carotid chemoreceptors to insulin-mediated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy humans. We hypothesized that reductions in carotid chemoreceptor activity would attenuate the sympathoexcitatory response to hyperinsulinemia. Young, healthy adults (9 male/9 female, 28 ± 1 yr, 24 ± 1 kg/m2) completed a 30-min euglycemic baseline followed by a 90-min hyperinsulinemic (1 mU·kg fat-free mass-1·min-1), euglycemic infusion. MSNA (microneurography of the peroneal nerve) was continuously measured. The role of the carotid chemoreceptors was assessed at baseline and during hyperinsulinemia via 1) acute hyperoxia, 2) low-dose dopamine (1-4 µg·kg-1·min-1), and 3) acute hyperoxia + low-dose dopamine. MSNA burst frequency increased from baseline during hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Acute hyperoxia had no effect on MSNA burst frequency at rest (P = 0.74) or during hyperinsulinemia (P = 0.83). The insulin-mediated increase in MSNA burst frequency (P = 0.02) was unaffected by low-dose dopamine (P = 0.60). When combined with low-dose dopamine, acute hyperoxia had no effect on MSNA burst frequency at rest (P = 0.17) or during hyperinsulinemia (P = 0.85). Carotid chemoreceptor desensitization in young, healthy men and women does not attenuate the sympathoexcitatory response to hyperinsulinemia. Our data suggest that the carotid chemoreceptors do not contribute to acute insulin-mediated increases in MSNA in young, healthy adults.
Grenada Heart Project-Community Health ActioN to EncouraGe healthy BEhaviors (GHP-CHANGE): A randomized control peer group-based lifestyle intervention.
American heart journal. 2020;:20-28
BACKGROUND The incidence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is increasing globally, with a disproportionate burden in the low and low-middle income countries (L/LMICs). Peer support, as a low-cost lifestyle intervention, has succeeded in managing chronic illness. For global CV risk reduction, limited data exists in LMICs. AIM: The GHP-CHANGE was designed as a community-based randomized trial to test the effectiveness of peer support strategy for CV risk reduction in the island of Grenada, a LMIC. METHODS We recruited 402 adults from the Grenada Heart Project (GHP) Cohort Study of 2827 subjects with at least two CV risk factors. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to a peer-group based intervention group (n = 206) or a self-management control group (n = 196) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in a composite score related to Blood pressure, Exercise, Weight, Alimentation and Tobacco (FBS, Fuster-BEWAT Score), ranging from 0 to 15 (ideal health = 15). Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for intervention effects. RESULTS Participants mean age was 51.4 years (SD 14.5) years, two-thirds were female, and baseline mean FBS was 8.9 (SD 2.6) and 8.5 (SD 2.6) in the intervention and control group, respectively (P = .152). At post intervention, the mean FBS was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group [9.1 (SD 2.7) vs 8.5 (SD 2.6), P = .028]. When balancing baseline health profile, the between-group difference (intervention vs. control) in the change of FBS was 0.31 points (95% CI: -0.12 to 0.75; P = .154). CONCLUSIONS The GHP-CHANGE trial showed that a peer-support lifestyle intervention program was feasible; however, it did not demonstrate a significant improvement in the FBS as compared to the control group. Further studies should assess the effects of low-cost lifestyle interventions in LMICs.
Neurodevelopmental outcome in 7-year-old children is not affected by exercise during pregnancy: follow up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2020;(4):508-517
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether regular moderate intensity exercise during pregnancy had adverse effect on neurodevelopment of offspring at 7 years of age. DESIGN Follow up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital and Stavanger University Hospital, Norway (2007-09). POPULATION Women randomised to follow a 12-week structured exercise protocol or standard antenatal care during pregnancy. METHODS At 7 years of age, neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed by the parent questionnaire Five-To-Fifteen (FTF), including motor skills, executive functions, perception, memory, language, social skills and possible emotional/behavioural problems. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Continuous and dichotomised (cut-off 90th centile) FTF scores. RESULTS A total of 855 women were randomised to exercise (n = 429) or standard antenatal care (n = 426) during pregnancy. At follow up, 164 (38.2%) children born to mothers in the intervention group and 115 (27.0%) children born to mothers in the control group participated. We found no group differences in FTF scores or in the proportion of children with scores ≥90th centile. Stratified analyses by sex, subgroup analyses of women who adhered to the exercise protocol or sensitivity analyses excluding preterm children and/or children who had been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS In the present randomised controlled trial follow-up study, regular moderate intensity exercise during pregnancy did not have adverse effect on neurodevelopment of offspring at 7 years of age. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT Moderate intensity exercise during pregnancy had no adverse effect on neurodevelopment of offspring at 7 years of age.
Short halt in vaping modifies cardiorespiratory parameters and urine metabolome: a randomized trial.
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology. 2020;(2):L331-L344
Propylene glycol and glycerol are e-cigarette constituents that facilitate liquid vaporization and nicotine transport. As these small hydrophilic molecules quickly cross the lung epithelium, we hypothesized that short-term cessation of vaping in regular users would completely clear aerosol deposit from the lungs and reverse vaping-induced cardiorespiratory toxicity. We aimed to assess the acute effects of vaping and their reversibility on biological/clinical cardiorespiratory parameters [serum/urine pneumoproteins, hemodynamic parameters, lung-function test and diffusing capacities, transcutaneous gas tensions (primary outcome), and skin microcirculatory blood flow]. Regular e-cigarette users were enrolled in this randomized, investigator-blinded, three-period crossover study. The periods consisted of nicotine-vaping (nicotine-session), nicotine-free vaping (nicotine-free-session), and complete cessation of vaping (stop-session), all maintained for 5 days before the session began. Multiparametric metabolomic analyses were used to verify subjects' protocol compliance. Biological/clinical cardiorespiratory parameters were assessed at the beginning of each session (baseline) and after acute vaping exposure. Compared with the nicotine- and nicotine-free-sessions, a specific metabolomic signature characterized the stop-session. Baseline serum club cell protein-16 was higher during the stop-session than the other sessions (P < 0.01), and heart rate was higher in the nicotine-session (P < 0.001). Compared with acute sham-vaping in the stop-session, acute nicotine-vaping (nicotine-session) and acute nicotine-free vaping (nicotine-free-session) slightly decreased skin oxygen tension (P < 0.05). In regular e-cigarette-users, short-term vaping cessation seemed to shift baseline urine metabolome and increased serum club cell protein-16 concentration, suggesting a decrease in lung inflammation. Additionally, acute vaping with and without nicotine decreased slightly transcutaneous oxygen tension, likely as a result of lung gas exchanges disturbances.
The cost-effectiveness of limiting federal housing vouchers to use in low-poverty neighborhoods in the United States.
Public health. 2020;:159-166
OBJECTIVE Residents of low-income neighborhoods are exposed to relatively higher rates of crime, fewer opportunities to exercise, poorer schools, and few opportunities to eat healthy foods than residents of middle-class neighborhoods. Policies that influence neighborhood context could therefore serve as health interventions. We seek to inform the policy debate over the wisdom of spending health dollars on non-health sectors of the economy by defining the opportunity cost of doing so. STUDY DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis with Markov model and Monte Carlo simulation. METHODS We assess the long-term health and economic benefits of Moving to Opportunity-type housing vouchers vs traditional public housing. Our Markov model draws heavily from decades of follow-up data from a large randomized-controlled trial, from which we make projections about health outcomes and costs. RESULTS Restricted housing vouchers cost less over the lifetime of recipients than traditional vouchers ($186,629 [95% credible interval: $148,856-$229,235] vs $194,077 [$153,831-$240,904]), while improving health and longevity (19.39 quality-adjusted life years [15.83-21.35] vs 19.16 [15.65-21.03]). Over 99% of the model simulations favored restricted housing vouchers over traditional public housing or non-restrictive vouchers. CONCLUSIONS Restrictive vouchers appear to improve population health, save money, and save lives.
The influence of gastric motility on the intraluminal behavior of fosamprenavir.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;:105117
In fasting conditions, the gastrointestinal system contracts according to the interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC), in which phases of quiescence (MMC phase I) alternate with phases of medium (MMC phase II) to very strong (MMC phase III) contractions. The time of drug intake relative to this cyclic motility pattern may cause variations in formulation behavior. To explore this hypothesis, a cross-over study was performed in healthy volunteers with an immediate release tablet of fosamprenavir (Telzir) which was administered in either MMC phase I or MMC phase II, as determined by high-resolution manometry. In the intestinal tract, fosamprenavir is rapidly hydrolyzed to the active compound amprenavir by alkaline phosphatases. Drug concentrations of both prodrug and drug were determined in the stomach and duodenum and linked to simultaneously assessed systemic concentrations. In 5 out of 6 healthy volunteers, the gastric release of fosamprenavir and the systemic uptake of amprenavir were affected by the MMC phase in which the tablet was administered. The intragastric disintegration of the tablet was faster and less variable after administration in MMC phase II, resulting in faster and less variable uptake of amprenavir in the systemic circulation. Mean plasma tmax values were 157 (±72.0) and 73.3 (±27.3) min after administration in MMC phase I and MMC phase II, respectively. The study clearly identified the time of oral drug intake relative to the interdigestive motility pattern as a possible source of variation in gastrointestinal drug behavior and absorption.
Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2020;(1):149-160
BACKGROUND Lactose malabsorption (LM) is a major cause of digestive discomfort from dairy products. Recently, a role for bovine β-casein A1 has been proposed. OBJECTIVES We examined whether there are distinct symptoms of digestive discomfort due to either lactose or differing bovine β-casein types. METHODS Women (n = 40; age: 25.2 ± 0.5 y) with self-reported varying dairy tolerance underwent a 50-g lactose challenge. Based on postchallenge LM and digestive discomfort, participants were classified as either lactose intolerant (LI; n = 10, self-reported intolerant, diagnosed lactose intolerant), nonlactose dairy intolerant (NLDI; n = 20, self-reported intolerant, diagnosed lactose tolerant), or dairy tolerant (DT; n = 10, self-reported tolerant, diagnosed lactose tolerant). In a double-blinded randomized sequence, participants consumed 750 mL conventional milk (CON; containing A1 and A2 β-casein and lactose), a2 Milk (A2M; exclusively containing A2 β-casein with lactose), or lactose-free conventional milk (LF-CON; containing A1 and A2 β-casein without lactose). Subjective digestive symptoms and breath hydrogen (measuring LM) were recorded regularly over 3 h, and further ad hoc digestive symptoms over 12 h. RESULTS LI subjects experienced prolonged digestive discomfort with CON milk. A2M reduced (P < 0.05) some symptoms (nausea: A2M 8 ± 3 mm compared with CON 15 ± 3mm; fecal urgency: A2M 4 ± 1 compared with CON 10 ± 3 mm), and attenuated the rise in breath hydrogen over 3 h, relative to CON milk (A2M 59 ± 23 compared with CON 98 ± 25 ppm at 150 min; P < 0.01). In contrast, NLDI subjects experienced rapid-onset, transient symptoms (abdominal distension, bloating, and flatulence) without increased breath hydrogen, irrespective of milk type. CONCLUSIONS In LI individuals, LM and digestive comfort with lactose-containing milks was improved with milk containing exclusively A2 β-casein. Furthermore, self-reported dairy intolerance without LM (NLDI) is characterized by early-onset digestive discomfort following milk ingestion, irrespective of lactose content or β-casein type. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12616001694404.
Acute hypoxia reduces exogenous glucose oxidation, glucose turnover, and metabolic clearance rate during steady-state aerobic exercise.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2020;:154030
BACKGROUND Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation is lower during steady-state aerobic exercise in native lowlanders sojourning at high altitude (HA) compared to sea level (SL). However, the underlying mechanism contributing to reduction in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during steady-state aerobic exercise performed at HA has not been explored. OBJECTIVE To determine if alterations in glucose rate of appearance (Ra), disappearance (Rd) and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) at HA provide a mechanism for explaining the observation of lower exogenous carbohydrate oxidation compared to during metabolically-matched, steady-state exercise at SL. METHODS Using a randomized, crossover design, native lowlanders (n = 8 males, mean ± SD, age: 23 ± 2 yr, body mass: 87 ± 10 kg, and VO2peak: SL 4.3 ± 0.2 L/min and HA 2.9 ± 0.2 L/min) consumed 145 g (1.8 g/min) of glucose while performing 80-min of metabolically-matched (SL: 1.66 ± 0.14 V̇O2 L/min 329 ± 28 kcal, HA: 1.59 ± 0.10 V̇O2 L/min, 320 ± 19 kcal) treadmill exercise in SL (757 mmHg) and HA (460 mmHg) conditions after a 5-h exposure. Substrate oxidation rates (g/min) and glucose turnover (mg/kg/min) during exercise were determined using indirect calorimetry and dual tracer technique (13C-glucose oral ingestion and [6,6-2H2]-glucose primed, continuous infusion). RESULTS Total carbohydrate oxidation was higher (P < 0.05) at HA (2.15 ± 0.32) compared to SL (1.39 ± 0.14). Exogenous glucose oxidation rate was lower (P < 0.05) at HA (0.35 ± 0.07) than SL (0.44 ± 0.05). Muscle glycogen oxidation was higher at HA (1.67 ± 0.26) compared to SL (0.83 ± 0.13). Total glucose Ra was lower (P < 0.05) at HA (12.3 ± 1.5) compared to SL (13.8 ± 2.0). Exogenous glucose Ra was lower (P < 0.05) at HA (8.9 ± 1.3) compared to SL (10.9 ± 2.2). Glucose Rd was lower (P < 0.05) at HA (12.7 ± 1.7) compared to SL (14.3 ± 2.0). MCR was lower (P < 0.05) at HA (9.0 ± 1.8) compared to SL (12.1 ± 2.3). Circulating glucose and insulin concentrations were higher in response carbohydrate intake during exercise at HA compared to SL. CONCLUSION Novel results from this investigation suggest that reductions in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at HA may be multifactorial; however, the apparent insensitivity of peripheral tissue to glucose uptake may be a primary determinate.