Osteoarthritis of the Knee.
The New England journal of medicine. 2021;(1):51-59
Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma with initial symptom of haemoptysis: a case report and review of literature.
BMC surgery. 2021;(1):13
BACKGROUND Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumour that leads to various symptoms. Haemoptysis is rarely caused by a pheochromocytoma occurring outside the bronchus or thoracic cavity. Here, we report the case of an extra-adrenal abdominal pheochromocytoma initially manifesting as haemoptysis/dyspnoea during exercise without classic symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION A 22-year-old man with a history of severe dyspnoea experienced difficulties in breathing following a marathon owing to haemoptysis that required ventilator management 1 year before presentation. His father had undergone surgery for ectopic pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 30-mm tumour between the inferior vena cava and pancreatic head while urinalysis revealed abnormally high noradrenaline levels. He was clinically diagnosed with an extra-adrenal abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. After controlling blood pressure, surgery was performed, and the tumour was successfully removed. Histopathology revealed chromogranin A (+), synaptophysin (+), S100 protein (+), and MIB-1 index of 1%. Therefore, the patient was finally diagnosed with extra-adrenal abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSIONS Haemoptysis is a rare manifestation of abdominal ectopic paraganglioma. Prompt consideration of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma when patients experience haemoptysis without any other possible aetiology may prevent inappropriate diagnosis and treatment and ultimately fatalities.
Triple-hit high-grade B-cell lymphoma presenting with ovarian torsion.
BMJ case reports. 2021;(5)
We report a case of a previously healthy woman in her early 70s who presented with 2 weeks of episodic abdominal pain and significant weight loss. Imaging of her abdomen revealed acute right ovarian torsion associated with bilateral ovarian enlargement and an indeterminant pelvic mass. An urgent laparoscopic bilateral oophorectomy was performed with pathological results consistent with triple-hit high-grade B-cell lymphoma. She was successfully treated with dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab, intrathecal methotrexate and venetoclax with complete remission after three cycles. Ovarian lymphoma is a rare entity and its genetic features have not been well described. We performed a literature review, describe the current knowledge regarding ovarian lymphoma and its therapeutic implication in the genomic age.
Non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma more than 5 years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A case report and literature review.
Asian journal of endoscopic surgery. 2021;(2):262-266
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of several cancers including adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia but not with distal gastric cancer (GC). Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular bariatric procedure. We report the fifth case in the medical literature of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma 63 months after LSG in a 26-year-old woman with no known recognizable risk factors. Among these five cases, the median (range) age at time of diagnosis of GC was 47 (26-64) years, the body mass index (BMI) prior to LSG was 47 (35.3-65.1) kg/m2 , the BMI at time of cancer diagnosis was 32 (29.3-47.0) kg/m2 , and the interval between LSG and diagnosis was 54 (9-63) months. Nonetheless, the link between LSG and the risk of GC remains skeptical and is discussed.
Exercise parameters for the chronic type B aortic dissection patient: a literature review and case report.
Postgraduate medicine. 2021;(2):217-222
INTRODUCTION The conservative management of a Stanford type B aortic dissection (TBD) is optimal blood pressure management, cardiac rehabilitation, and progressive return to activities of daily living (ADL) while preventing advancing dissection and aortic dilation. Recent case reports indicate higher levels of activity may be safe; however, the exercise parameters for chronic TBD conditions span a broad range and the research is limited. CASE PRESENTATION The clinical presentation and outpatient cardiac and physical rehabilitation program for a 61-year-old male with a chronic TBD from his subclavian artery to common iliac arteries is presented. The exercise protocol was developed and based on the available literature for the management of chronic aortic diseases. Eighteen months after the patient's acute TBD event, he began an exercise protocol designed to address the sport specific functional deficits related to his recreational activities. The program incorporated a variety of exercises from resistance training to cardiovascular exercise and high interval training. The therapeutic goals included restoration of cardiac fitness and improvement of core stability and appendicular strength, ultimately aiming toward a potential to return to recreational sport involving short duration, high intensity activity. CONCLUSION In conjunction with the appropriate anti-hypertensive medication treatment, understanding the concepts of aortic hemodynamics as they relate to exercise can serve as a guideline for clinicians in developing an individualized exercise program for their TBD patients. Moreover, these physical training programs may include particular exercise guidelines beyond general recommendations of light to moderate cardiovascular activities.
Update on the ESCEO recommendation for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs aiming at the treatment of sarcopenia in older adults.
Aging clinical and experimental research. 2021;(1):3-17
BACKGROUND In 2016, an expert working group was convened under the auspices of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and formulated consensus recommendations for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs to prevent or treat sarcopenia. AIMS The objective of the current paper is to provide a 2020 update of the previous recommendations in accordance with the evidence that has become available since our original recommendations. METHODS This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the ESCEO working group and followed up with face to face meetings organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. RESULTS The randomized placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-arm drug clinical trials should be the design of choice for both phase II and III trials. Treatment and follow-up should run at least 6 months for phase II and 12 months for phase III trials. Overall physical activity, nutrition, co-prescriptions and comorbidity should be recorded. Participants in these trials should be at least 70-years-old and present with a combination of low muscle strength and low physical performance. Severely malnourished individuals, as well as bedridden patients, patients with extremely limited mobility or individuals with physical limitations clearly attributable to the direct effect of a specific disease, should be excluded. Multiple outcomes are proposed for phase II trials, including, as example, physical performance, muscle strength and mass, muscle metabolism and muscle-bone interaction. For phase III trials, we recommend a co-primary endpoint of a measure of functional performance and a Patient Reported Outcome Measure. CONCLUSION The working group has formulated consensus recommendations on specific aspects of trial design, and in doing so hopes to contribute to an improvement of the methodological robustness and comparability of clinical trials. Standardization of designs and outcomes would advance the field by allowing better comparison across studies, including performing individual patient-data meta-analyses, and different pro-myogenic therapies.
The occurrence of resveratrol in foodstuffs and its potential for supporting cancer prevention and treatment. A review
Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny. 2021;69(1):5-14
Plain language summary
There has been increasing interest in plant-based substances that show potential for preventing cancer development. Resveratrol is among these and is found in the skin of grapes, tomatoes and in red wine. Resveratrol displays anti-carcinogenic capacity by neutralising reactive oxygen species and modulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The purpose of this review was to present the characteristics of resveratrol as a bioactive compound and assess the mechanism of its anti-cancer properties. According to many in vitro and in vivo studies, resveratrol is able to inhibit all stages of carcinogenesis in several types of cancer. Based on these findings, the authors conclude there is a need to promote knowledge of the beneficial effects of resveratrol, and that conventional cancer treatment should be supported by an increase of this substance from both foodstuffs and supplements.
Over recent years, there has been increasing interest noted in those active substances derived from plants that show potential for preventing cancer development. The most promising candidate is resveratrol which can be found in large amounts in the skin of grapes, tomatoes and in red wine. Its beneficial effects on the human body are seen both in prevention and therapy. The anti-carcinogenic action of resveratrol is linked with its ability to neutralise reactive oxygen species and to modulate cellular processes such as apoptosis, and both cancerous cell proliferation and differentiation. This article presents the characteristics of resveratrol as a bioactive compound derived from natural sources exhibiting anti-cancer properties, which, because of a wide spectrum of biological activities may be used in the prevention of cancer. Many in vitro and animal-based studies have demonstrated such preventative anti-cancer action in the colon, prostate, breast and lungs. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are also presented when adopted as a support to conventional treatments of cancer using chemo- and radio-therapy.
Youth Distance Running and Lower Extremity Injury: A Systematic Review.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;(14)
Distance running is a popular youth sport. This systematic review identified and examined the effects of youth distance running and lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. Scientific databases were searched from database inception to May 2020. Two hundred and fifty-eight full texts were screened, with nine articles retained for data extraction. Seven of the studies were case reports or case series. Two case reports involved an apophyseal hip fracture. No correlation was found between running mileage or gender and sustaining an injury. Middle school runners reported fewer injuries than high school runners. Cross country accounted for less than 10% of injuries in youth under 15 compared to other track activities. The main finding was a paucity of research. Available literature suggests youth can participate in distance running with minimal adverse effects. One exception may be increased vulnerability to growth plate injury. Additional research is needed, especially in those under 10, as literature in this population is nonexistent.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor presenting as a diffuse pancreatic enlargement, case report and review of literature.
Journal of radiology case reports. 2021;(1):11-20
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are rare neoplasms that comprise 1-2% of all pancreatic tumors. However, they are the second most common solid pancreatic neoplasms. They have a wide range of imaging appearances and they can show common to very rare imaging presentations. Most of the time they are solitary well-marginated enhancing solid mass arising in a certain aspect of the pancreas. We present a case report of a 41-year-old female who underwent clinical work-up for abdominal pain, loss of appetite and weight loss for the past year. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging show diffuse homogenous pancreatic enlargement without contour deformity or a focal mass. Lymphoma and autoimmune pancreatitis were suggested based on imaging findings but IGg4 level and other lab data were normal. Endoscopic ultrasonography confirmed the diffuse enlargement of the pancreas without peripheral structures involvement. The pathological results of multiple fine-needle aspiration biopsy from all parts of the enlarged pancreas revealed a low-grade neuroendocrine tumor.
The multisystem nature of isomerism: left isomerism complicated by Abernethy malformation and portopulmonary hypertension.
Cardiology in the young. 2021;(4):532-540
Isomerism, also referred to as "heterotaxy" is a complex set of anatomic and functional perturbations. One of the most obvious manifestations of isomerism is the disturbance of organ arrangement, such that the thoracic organs are no longer asymmetric on the left and right. We report the case of a 14-year-old female in whom exercise-induced dyspnea led to a late diagnosis of left isomerism complicated by Abernethy malformation and portopulmonary hypertension. A comprehensive evaluation revealed two anatomic left lungs and hyparterial bronchi, bilateral left atria, an interrupted inferior caval vein with azygos continuation, multiple spleens, sinus node dysfunction, hepatic hypertrophy with focal nodular hyperplasia, and absence of the portal vein. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy was initiated resulting in clinical improvement. This case exhibits unique features including a late diagnosis of isomerism with Abernethy malformation and portopulmonary hypertension. The patient's presentation, medical workup, and future treatment emphasise the importance of multidisciplinary care in children with complex multisystem disease. We review the multiple cardiac and extracardiac manifestations of isomerism.