Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone orthopedic implants in musculoskeletal and spinal tumors: imaging and clinical features.
Skeletal radiology. 2023;(3):393-404
Carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) orthopedic implants are gaining popularity in oncologic applications as they offer many potential advantages over traditional metallic implants. From an imaging perspective, this instrumentation allows for improved evaluation of adjacent anatomic structures during radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This results in improved postoperative surveillance imaging quality as well as easier visualization of anatomy for potential image-guided percutaneous interventions (e.g., pain palliation injections, or ablative procedures for local disease control). CFR-PEEK devices are also advantageous in radiation oncology treatment due to their decreased imaging artifact during treatment planning imaging and decreased dose perturbation during radiotherapy delivery. As manufacturing processes for CFR-PEEK materials continue to evolve and improve, potential orthopedic applications in the spine and appendicular skeleton increase. An understanding of the unique properties of CFR-PEEK devices and their impact on imaging is valuable to radiologists delivering care to orthopedic oncology patients in both the diagnostic and interventional settings. This multidisciplinary review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the radiologic, surgical, and radiation oncology impact of these innovative devices.
New Directions in Phosphorus Management in Dialysis.
Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation. 2023;(1):12-16
Current phosphate management strategies in end-stage renal disease (dietary phosphate restriction, dialysis, and phosphate binders) are inadequate to maintain target phosphate levels in most patients. Dietary phosphate restriction is challenging due to "hidden phosphates" in processed foods, and dialysis and phosphate binders are insufficient to match average dietary phosphate intake. As phosphate binders must be taken with each meal, patients need to ingest many, large pills several times a day, negatively impacting quality of life. Recent advances in our understanding of phosphate absorption pathways have led to the development of new nonbinder therapies that block phosphate absorption. This review describes the limitations of current phosphate management strategies and discusses new therapies in development that inhibit phosphate absorption pathways. These new therapies present an opportunity to rethink phosphate management, potentially by prescribing phosphate absorption inhibitors as a primary therapy and adding phosphate binders if needed.
Mechanistic insights into dietary (poly)phenols and vascular dysfunction-related diseases using multi-omics and integrative approaches: Machine learning as a next challenge in nutrition research.
Molecular aspects of medicine. 2023;:101101
Dietary (poly)phenols have been extensively studied for their vasculoprotective effects and consequently their role in preventing or delaying onsets of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Even though early studies have ascribed the vasculoprotective properties of (poly)phenols primarily on their putative free radical scavenging properties, recent data indicate that in biological systems, (poly)phenols act primarily through genomic and epigenomic mechanisms. The molecular mechanisms underlying their health properties are still not well identified, mainly due to the use of physiologically non-relevant conditions (native molecules or extracts at high concentrations, rather than circulating metabolites), but also due to the use of targeted genomic approaches aiming to evaluate the effect only on few specific genes, thus preventing to decipher detailed molecular mechanisms involved. The use of state-of-the-art untargeted analytical methods represents a significant breakthrough in nutrigenomics, as these methods enable detailed insights into the effects at each specific omics level. Moreover, the implementation of multi-omics approaches allows integration of different levels of regulation of cellular functions, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the molecular mechanisms of action of (poly)phenols. In combination with bioinformatics and the methods of machine learning, multi-omics has potential to make a huge contribution to the nutrition science. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of the omics, multi-omics, and integrative approaches in studying the vasculoprotective properties of dietary (poly)phenols and address the potentials for use of the machine learning in nutrigenomics.
Tryptophan and its metabolites in normal physiology and cancer etiology.
The FEBS journal. 2023;(1):7-27
Within the growing field of amino acid metabolism, tryptophan (Trp) catabolism is an area of increasing interest. Trp is essential for protein synthesis, and its metabolism gives rise to biologically active catabolites including serotonin and numerous metabolites in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. In normal tissues, the production of Trp metabolites is directly regulated by the tissue-specific expression of Trp-metabolizing enzymes. Alterations of these enzymes in cancers can shift the balance and lead to an increased production of specific byproducts that can function as oncometabolites. For example, increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which converts Trp into Kyn, leads to an increase in Kyn levels in numerous cancers. Kyn functions as an oncometabolite in cancer cells by promoting the activity of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which regulates progrowth genes. Moreover, Kyn also inhibits T-cell activity and thus allows cancer cells to evade clearance by the immune system. Therefore, targeting the Kyn pathway has become a therapeutic focus as a novel means to abrogate tumor growth and immune resistance. This review summarizes the biological role and regulation of Trp metabolism and its catabolites with an emphasis on tumor cell growth and immune evasion and outlines areas for future research focus.
Sporadic Pb accumulation by plants: Influence of soil biogeochemistry, microbial community and physiological mechanisms.
Journal of hazardous materials. 2023;(Pt A):130391
Recent results revealed that considerable Pb accumulation in plants is possible under specific soil conditions that make Pb phytoavailable. In this review, the sources and transformations of Pb in soils, the interaction of Pb with bacteria and specifically the microbiota in the soil, factors and mechanisms of Pb uptake, translocation and accumulation in plants and Pb toxicity in living organisms are comprehensively elaborated. Specific adsorption and post-adsorption transformations of Pb in soil are the main mechanisms affecting the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of Pb. The adsorption ability of Pb largely depends on the composition and properties of soils and environmental conditions. Microbial impact on Pb mobility in soil and bioavailability as well as bacterial resistance to Pb are considered. Specific mechanisms conferring Pb-resistance, including Pb-efflux, siderophores, and EPS, have been identified. Pathways of Pb entry into plants as well as mechanisms of in planta Pb transport are poorly understood. Available evidence suggests the involvement of Ca transporters, organic acids and the phytochelatin pathway in Pb transport, mobility and detoxification, respectively.
Sustainable production of biosurfactants via valorisation of industrial wastes as alternate feedstocks.
Chemosphere. 2023;(Pt 1):137326
Globally, the rapid increase in the human population has given rise to a variety of industries, which have produced a variety of wastes. Due to their detrimental effects on both human and environmental health, pollutants from industry have taken centre stage among the various types of waste produced. The amount of waste produced has therefore increased the demand for effective waste management. In order to create valuable chemicals for sustainable waste management, trash must be viewed as valuable addition. One of the most environmentally beneficial and sustainable choices is to use garbage to make biosurfactants. The utilization of waste in the production of biosurfactant provides lower processing costs, higher availability of feedstock and environmental friendly product along with its characteristics. The current review focuses on the use of industrial wastes in the creation of sustainable biosurfactants and discusses how biosurfactants are categorized. Waste generation in the fruit industry, agro-based industries, as well as sugar-industry and dairy-based industries is documented. Each waste and wastewater are listed along with its benefits and drawbacks. This review places a strong emphasis on waste management, which has important implications for the bioeconomy. It also offers the most recent scientific literature on industrial waste, including information on the role of renewable feedstock for the production of biosurfactants, as well as the difficulties and unmet research needs in this area.
Preventative Options and the Future of Chemoprevention for Cutaneous Tumors.
Dermatologic clinics. 2023;(1):231-238
Chemoprophylaxis against nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) should be considered in high-risk populations such as those with certain genetic disorders, immunosuppressive states, chronic radiation, excessive UV exposure, or extensive personal or family history of NMSC. The methods for chemoprevention have progressed beyond traditional sunscreen into more effective strategies including DNA repair enzymes, nicotinamide, systemic retinoids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other therapies are still being investigated and include treatments that target premalignant lesions, capecitabine, hedgehog inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine, metformin, and nutritional factors.
Management of Allergic Skin Disorders in Pregnancy.
Immunology and allergy clinics of North America. 2023;(1):117-132
The safe management of allergic skin disorders during pregnancy is essential to maternal and fetal health. Poorly controlled allergic skin disease affects the health of mother and child. This article reviews the disease course and treatment of atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis in pregnancy. It focuses on topical and systemic therapies in the context of pregnancy and breastfeeding. Because disease activity may vary in pregnancy, prescription stewardship is imperative; a balance among disease control, minimum effective dosing, and medication safety profiles should be maintained. Secondary complications and risks to maternal or infant health should also be avoided.
Recent advances in the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides of fungal origin.
The Journal of antibiotics. 2023;(1):3-13
Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are growing class of natural products with potent biological activities. Although the core scaffolds of RiPPs are composed of proteinogenic amino acids, remarkable structural diversity is generated through posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of precursor peptides. In addition, ribosomal origin of biosynthetic precursors enables supply of its analogs through genetic approach such as site-directed mutagenesis on corresponding genes. As PTM enzymes often exhibit substrate tolerance, RiPP biosynthetic machineries are considered as efficient tools for generation of unique peptide derivatives. RiPP pathways are distributed among all domains of life and those derived from bacteria and plants have been known for decades. In contrast, fungal RiPPs (F-RiPPs) have fewer examples. Amatoxins and omphalotins are F-RiPPs produced by Basidiomycota fungi. In the biosynthesis of these compounds, macrocyclization by prolyl oligopeptidase homologs and N-methylations of back bone amides have been characterized, respectively. Ustiloxins and related compounds are another group of F-RiPPs with characteristic macrocyclic ethers. UstYa family proteins, which are fungi-specific putative oxidases, have been identified as common proteins involved in PTMs of these compounds. Despite a limited number of characterized examples, recent progress in sequencing of fungal genomes indicated that a number of RiPP pathways are hidden in fungal resources, making F-RiPPs as attractive target for genome mining studies while more detailed understandings of key biosynthetic enzymes are still necessary. This review seeks to describe recent advances on the F-RiPP biosynthesis with slight emphasis on the function of UstYa family proteins.
Mitochondrial copper in human genetic disorders.
Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2023;(1):21-33
Copper is an essential micronutrient that serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in diverse physiological processes, including mitochondrial energy generation. Copper enters cells through a dedicated copper transporter and is distributed to intracellular cuproenzymes by copper chaperones. Mitochondria are critical copper-utilizing organelles that harbor an essential cuproenzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which powers energy production. Mutations in copper transporters and chaperones that perturb mitochondrial copper homeostasis result in fatal genetic disorders. Recent studies have uncovered the therapeutic potential of elesclomol, a copper ionophore, for the treatment of copper deficiency disorders such as Menkes disease. Here we review the role of copper in mitochondrial energy metabolism in the context of human diseases and highlight the recent developments in copper therapeutics.