Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Effects of n-3 fatty acids and exercise on oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic: a randomized clinical trial.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2018;15:18
Plain language summary
An elevated blood glucose level is one of the key metabolic abnormalities associated with complications in type 2 diabetes. Literature shows that individuals with type 2 diabetes have higher inflammatory levels than those with normal blood glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation can reduce the inflammatory response associated with high-intensity exercise in type 2 diabetic individuals. This was a randomised, double-blind controlled study, which recruited 30 type 2 diabetic men and women aged between 30 and 60 years. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, omega-3 PUFA supplementation diminished the concentration of the total reactive antioxidant potential and triglyceride levels after high intensity exercise, however did not reduce the inflammatory response.
Background: The relationship between diabetes and oxidative stress has been previously reported. Exercise represents a useful non-pharmacological strategy for the treatment in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients, but high intensity exercise can induce a transient inflammatory state and increase oxidative stress. Nutritional strategies that may contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress induced by acute exercise are necessary. The aim of this study was to examine if n-3 PUFA supplementation intervention can attenuate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress associated with high intensity exercise in this population. As a primary outcome, lipoperoxidation measurements (TBARS and F2-isoprostanes) were selected. Methods: Thirty T2DM patients, without chronic complications, were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (gelatin capsules) or n-3 PUFA (capsules containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid). Blood samples were collected fasting before and after 8 weeks supplementation. In the beginning and at the end of protocol, an acute exercise was performed (treadmill), and new blood samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise for measurements of oxidative stress and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results: After the supplementation period, a decrease in triglycerides levels was observed only in n-3 PUFA supplementation group (mean difference and 95% CI of 0.002 (0.000-0.004), = 0.005). Supplementation also significantly reduced TRAP levels after exercise (mean difference and 95% CI to 9641 (- 20,068-39,351) for - 33,884 (- 56,976 - -10,793), = 0.004, Cohen's effect size = 1.12), but no significant difference was observed in n-3 PUFA supplementation group in lipoperoxidation parameters as TBARS (mean difference and 95% CI to - 3.8 (- 10-2.4) for - 2.9 (- 1.6-7.4) or F2-isoprostanes (mean difference and 95% CI -0.05 (- 0.19-0.10) for - 0.02 (- 0.19-0.16), > 0.05 for both. Conclusion: PUFA n-3 supplementation reduced triglycerides as well as TRAP levels after exercise, without a significant effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number of NCT03182712.
Impact of Experimentally Induced Cognitive Dietary Restraint on Eating Behavior Traits, Appetite Sensations, and Markers of Stress during Energy Restriction in Overweight/Obese Women.
Journal of obesity. 2018;2018:4259389
Plain language summary
The treatment of obesity has become a public health priority given the negative impact of this condition on physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to compare the eﬀects of energy restriction alone or in combination with induced cognitive dietary restraint (CDR) on eating behaviour traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in overweight and obese premenopausal women. The study is a single-blinded randomised clinical study which recruited premenopausal women aged between 26 and 50 years. The participants were randomised to either an energy-restriction-plus-induced CDR condition (CDR+group) or an energy-restriction-without induced CDR condition (CDR−group). Results indicate that inducing CDR in a context of energy restriction had no further eﬀects on eating behaviour traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in the short term as well as in the longer term than energy restriction alone. Authors conclude that increasing CDR has no negative impact on factors regulating energy balance in the context of energy restriction.
undefined: Weight loss has been associated with changes in eating behaviors and appetite sensations that favor a regain in body weight. Since traditional weight loss approaches emphasize the importance of increasing cognitive dietary restraint (CDR) to achieve negative energy imbalance, it is difficult to untangle the respective contributions of energy restriction and increases in CDR on factors that can eventually lead to body weight regain. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of energy restriction alone or in combination with experimentally induced CDR on eating behavior traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in overweight and obese women. We hypothesized that the combination of energy restriction and induced CDR would lead to more prevalent food cravings, increased appetite sensations, and higher cortisol concentrations than when energy restriction is not coupled with induced CDR. A total of 60 premenopausal women (mean BMI: 32.0 kg/m ; mean age: 39.4 y) were provided with a low energy density diet corresponding to 85% of their energy needs during a 4-week fully controlled period. At the same time, women were randomized to either a condition inducing an increase in CDR (CDR+ group) or a condition in which CDR was not induced (CRD- group). Eating behavior traits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Food Craving Questionnaire), appetite sensations (after standardized breakfast), and markers of stress (Perceived Stress Scale; postawakening salivary cortisol) were measured before ( = 0 week) and after ( = 4 weeks) the 4-week energy restriction, as well as 3 months later. There was an increase in CDR in the CDR+ group while no such change was observed in the CDR- group ( =0.0037). No between-group differences were observed for disinhibition, hunger, cravings, appetite sensations, perceived stress, and cortisol concentrations. These results suggest that a slight increase in CDR has no negative impact on factors regulating energy balance in the context of energy restriction.
Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males.
Journal of translational medicine. 2016;14(1):290
Plain language summary
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) allows subjects to consume ad libitum energy intake within a defined window of time, which means a fasting window of 12–21 h per day is employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an isoenergetic TRF protocol on body composition, athletic performance, and metabolic factors during resistance training in healthy resistance trained males. The study enrolled thirty-four resistance-trained males. The participants were randomly assigned to a TRF group (n = 17) or standard diet group (n = 17). Training was standardized for both groups. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, a significant decrease in fat mass was observed in the TRF group, while fat-free mass was maintained in both groups. The same trend was observed for arm and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. Leg press maximal strength increased significantly, but no difference was present between treatments. Authors conclude that TRF can maintain muscle mass, reducing body fat, and reducing inflammation markers and anabolic hormones. This kind of regimen could be adopted by athletes during maintenance phases of training in which the goal is to maintain muscle mass while reducing fat mass.
BACKGROUND Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males. METHODS Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to time-restricted feeding (TRF) or normal diet group (ND). TRF subjects consumed 100 % of their energy needs in an 8-h period of time each day, with their caloric intake divided into three meals consumed at 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. The remaining 16 h per 24-h period made up the fasting period. Subjects in the ND group consumed 100 % of their energy needs divided into three meals consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution (TRF 2826 ± 412.3 kcal/day, carbohydrates 53.2 ± 1.4 %, fat 24.7 ± 3.1 %, protein 22.1 ± 2.6 %, ND 3007 ± 444.7 kcal/day, carbohydrates 54.7 ± 2.2 %, fat 23.9 ± 3.5 %, protein 21.4 ± 1.8). Subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of the assigned diet and standardized resistance training program. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscle area of the thigh and arm were measured using an anthropometric system. Total and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Bench press and leg press maximal strength, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory ratio were also tested. RESULTS After 8 weeks, the 2 Way ANOVA (Time * Diet interaction) showed a decrease in fat mass in TRF compared to ND (p = 0.0448), while fat-free mass, muscle area of the arm and thigh, and maximal strength were maintained in both groups. Testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreased significantly in TRF, with no changes in ND (p = 0.0476; p = 0.0397). Adiponectin increased (p = 0.0000) in TRF while total leptin decreased (p = 0.0001), although not when adjusted for fat mass. Triiodothyronine decreased in TRF, but no significant changes were detected in thyroid-stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides. Resting energy expenditure was unchanged, but a significant decrease in respiratory ratio was observed in the TRF group. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that an intermittent fasting program in which all calories are consumed in an 8-h window each day, in conjunction with resistance training, could improve some health-related biomarkers, decrease fat mass, and maintain muscle mass in resistance-trained males.