Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by an abundant consumption of extra-virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, a moderate consumption of fish and seafood, poultry, fermented dairy products, and red wine with meals, and low intakes of sweetened beverages, red meat and ready meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and physical activity on pulmonary function in a large middle-aged population at low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk. The study is an ongoing study that between 2015 and 2017 enrolled a total of 3020 subjects – women aged between 50 to 70 years and men aged between 45 to 65 years – with the presence of at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Results indicate that a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was linked with impaired breathing patterns and higher prevalence of abnormal lung function when compared to participants with a higher adherence to this dietary pattern. Additionally, vigorous physical activity was accompanied by better results in lung function than that observed in inactive subjects. The study provides initial clinical evidence about the independent and deleterious effect of both low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and low physical activity practice on lung function in participants without known pulmonary disease.
undefined: A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87⁻109) vs. 94 (82⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89⁻112) vs. 93 (80⁻107) % of predicted, < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88⁻107) vs. 94 (83⁻105) % of predicted, = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89⁻110) vs. 95 (84⁻108) % of predicted, = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors.
Effects of n-3 fatty acids and exercise on oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic: a randomized clinical trial.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2018;15:18
Plain language summary
An elevated blood glucose level is one of the key metabolic abnormalities associated with complications in type 2 diabetes. Literature shows that individuals with type 2 diabetes have higher inflammatory levels than those with normal blood glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation can reduce the inflammatory response associated with high-intensity exercise in type 2 diabetic individuals. This was a randomised, double-blind controlled study, which recruited 30 type 2 diabetic men and women aged between 30 and 60 years. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, omega-3 PUFA supplementation diminished the concentration of the total reactive antioxidant potential and triglyceride levels after high intensity exercise, however did not reduce the inflammatory response.
Background: The relationship between diabetes and oxidative stress has been previously reported. Exercise represents a useful non-pharmacological strategy for the treatment in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients, but high intensity exercise can induce a transient inflammatory state and increase oxidative stress. Nutritional strategies that may contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress induced by acute exercise are necessary. The aim of this study was to examine if n-3 PUFA supplementation intervention can attenuate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress associated with high intensity exercise in this population. As a primary outcome, lipoperoxidation measurements (TBARS and F2-isoprostanes) were selected. Methods: Thirty T2DM patients, without chronic complications, were randomly allocated into two groups: placebo (gelatin capsules) or n-3 PUFA (capsules containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid). Blood samples were collected fasting before and after 8 weeks supplementation. In the beginning and at the end of protocol, an acute exercise was performed (treadmill), and new blood samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise for measurements of oxidative stress and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Results: After the supplementation period, a decrease in triglycerides levels was observed only in n-3 PUFA supplementation group (mean difference and 95% CI of 0.002 (0.000-0.004), = 0.005). Supplementation also significantly reduced TRAP levels after exercise (mean difference and 95% CI to 9641 (- 20,068-39,351) for - 33,884 (- 56,976 - -10,793), = 0.004, Cohen's effect size = 1.12), but no significant difference was observed in n-3 PUFA supplementation group in lipoperoxidation parameters as TBARS (mean difference and 95% CI to - 3.8 (- 10-2.4) for - 2.9 (- 1.6-7.4) or F2-isoprostanes (mean difference and 95% CI -0.05 (- 0.19-0.10) for - 0.02 (- 0.19-0.16), > 0.05 for both. Conclusion: PUFA n-3 supplementation reduced triglycerides as well as TRAP levels after exercise, without a significant effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers.This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number of NCT03182712.