Cashew apple juice supplementation enhances leukocyte count by reducing oxidative stress after high-intensity exercise in trained and untrained men.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019;16(1):31
Plain language summary
High-intensity aerobic training has been shown to suppress leukocyte counts in moderately fit athletes. The aim of this study to explore possible advantageous effects of cashew apple juice (CAJ) supplementation, and, if present, to identify the possible mechanisms underlying those effects. The study is a double-blind randomised cross-over design with two treatment arms: CAJ supplementation and placebo. Ten moderately (endurance) trained and untrained men were randomized to one of the two groups for four weeks, with a four-week wash out period. Results showed that CAJ supplementation for four weeks increased leukocyte (a type of blood cell) counts, while simultaneously decreasing oxidative stress, following an acute bout of high-intensity exercise in trained men. Furthermore, the CAJ supplementation increased neutrophil (a type of white blood cell) counts while simultaneously reducing oxidative stress and stress hormone concentrations in untrained men. The antioxidant effects following exercise were observed in both endurance-trained and untrained men. Authors conclude that CAJ supplementation is beneficial to men, both in resting states and in response to an acute bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise.
BACKGROUND Cashew apple juice (CAJ) was shown to improve immunological mechanisms by regulating a balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant concentrations. However, no study exploring the effects of the CAJ and training status on the immune system and oxidative stress induced by exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CAJ supplementation primarily on leukocyte counts and secondary on oxidative stress and cortisol changes after high-intensity exercise in trained and untrained men. METHODS Ten moderately (endurance) trained (Age = 21.5 ± 0.97 yr., VO2max = 45.6 ± 4.12 mL/kgBM/min) and ten sedentary men (Age = 20.4 ± 2.72 yr., VO2peak = 32.2 ± 7.26 mL/kgBM/min) were randomized to ingest either daily CAJ or a placebo at 3.5 mL/kgBM/day for 4 weeks, with a four-week washout period. Before and after each period, they performed 20-min, high-intensity cycling (85% VO2max), with blood samples collected immediately preceding and the following exercise. Samples were analyzed to determine leukocyte counts, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane, and cortisol concentrations. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of supplement and training status over time with an alpha level of 0.05. RESULTS There was no interaction between supplement and training status on those variables before and after exercise. However, CAJ raised resting neutrophil counts and exercise-induced leukocyte counts in the trained group (all p < 0.05). Besides, CAJ significantly reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentrations at rest and after exercise and reduced the post-exercise plasma 8-isoprostane concentration in both groups of subjects (p < 0.05). Moreover, CAJ reduced plasma cortisol after exercise in the untrained subjects. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that 4-week CAJ supplementation can enhance exercise-induced leukocyte and resting neutrophil counts in trained men. The possible mechanism is a reduction in oxidative stress. However, the supplementation did not change the immune responses of untrained men, but it did reduce stress hormone concentrations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER TCTR20181127002 Registered 26 November 2018 "retrospectively registered".
Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners.
Plain language summary
Athletes undergoing high-intensity eﬀorts show increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), both in the context of competitions and during strenuous training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inﬂuence of the daily intake of fermented milk (containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota) on the systemic and upper airway immune/inﬂammatory responses before and after a race in marathon runners who previously reported upper respiratory symptoms (URS) after an exhaustive physical exercise session. The study is a double-blind randomised clinical study which recruited 42 male amateur marathon runners with an average age of 39 years. The participants were randomly separated into two groups: Lactobacillus casei Shirota group (n=20) or the placebo group (n=22). Results indicate that daily ingestion of fermented milk (containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota) was able to control both immunological and inﬂammatory responses in the blood and also in the upper airways mucosal of amateurs´ runners after a marathon. Authors conclude that Lactobacillus casei Shirota is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon, presenting protective effects.
BACKGROUND Although Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. METHODS Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. RESULTS Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. CONCLUSION For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon.
Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative.
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2018;19(1):1
Plain language summary
Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) typically present with greater systemic inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Currently it is unclear whether these factors are associated with early-stage OA, namely bone marrow lesions and swelling. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis in early-stage OA. Using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, 343 participants were enrolled and tested for markers of inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Bone marrow lesions and swelling were also assessed through imaging results. Results indicate that among individuals without OA, those with greater systemic inflammation were more likely to have bone marrow lesions and knee swelling. According to these results, the authors conclude that systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis are related to structural features of osteoarthritis. Future studies should explore whether these factors are predictive of OA in order to identify therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of knee OA.
BACKGROUND Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm ) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm ). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. RESULTS We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m , PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were not significantly associated with the presence of baseline effusion or BML. CONCLUSIONS Among individuals without knee OA, CRP may be related to the presence of BMLs and effusion among normal weight individuals. Abnormal GSP may be associated with effusion. Future studies should explore whether inflammation and glucose homeostasis are predictive of symptomatic knee OA.
Effect of intermittent vs. daily calorie restriction on changes in weight and patient-reported outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis.
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2018;23:33-39
Plain language summary
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system. Dietary modification is emerging as a safe intervention to potentially modify disease course. The main aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of an intermittent fasting diet in people with MS. Secondary outcomes explored the effects of calorie restriction (CR) diets on body weight and anthropometric characteristics as well as on patient-reported outcomes including fatigue, sleep and mood. The study is a pilot randomised controlled feeding study of three different types of diets. Each participant (n=36) was randomized to 1 of 3 diets: a control diet (placebo), a daily CR diet and intermittent CR diet. Results indicate that daily CR diet was associated with marginally greater weight loss than the intermittent CR diet. Both CR diets were associated with trends toward improvements in cardiometabolic outcomes. Furthermore, CR diets were associated with in improvements in emotional well-being. Authors conclude that CR and weight loss represent interventions for clinically relevant symptoms due to MS, such as emotional well-being, without adding meaningful risks or adverse outcomes.
An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding study in 36 people with MS to assess safety and feasibility of different types of calorie restriction (CR) diets and assess their effects on weight and patient reported outcomes in people with MS. Patients were randomized to receive 1 of 3 diets for 8 weeks: daily CR diet (22% daily reduction in energy needs), intermittent CR diet (75% reduction in energy needs, 2 days/week; 0% reduction, 5 days/week), or a weight-stable diet (0% reduction in energy needs, 7 days/week). Of the 36 patients enrolled, 31 (86%) completed the trial; no significant adverse events occurred. Participants randomized to CR diets lost a median 3.4 kg (interquartile range [IQR]: -2.4, -4.0). Changes in weight did not differ significantly by type of CR diet, although participants randomized to daily CR tended to have greater weight loss (daily CR: -3.6 kg [IQR: -3.0, -4.1] vs. intermittent CR: -3.0 kg [IQR: -1.95, -4.1]; P = 0.15). Adherence to study diets differed significantly between intermittent CR vs. daily CR, with lesser adherence observed for intermittent CR (P = 0.002). Randomization to either CR diet was associated with significant improvements in emotional well-being/depression scores relative to control, with an average 8-week increase of 1.69 points (95% CI: 0.72, 2.66). CR diets are a safe/feasible way to achieve weight loss in people with MS and may be associated with improved emotional health.
Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Breast Cancer Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2017;35(25):2919-2926
Plain language summary
In the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI DM) trial, 48,835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a dietary modification group or usual diet comparison group to assess low-fat dietary pattern effects on breast cancer incidence. The aim of this study was to present results of dietary modification influence on deaths as a result of breast cancer and on the more general outcome of deaths after breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death as a result of any cause). The study recruited postmenopausal women between 50 and 79 years of age with no record of previous breast cancer. The participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention group or a usual diet comparison group. Results indicate that with long-term follow-up of the WHI DM trial, deaths after breast cancer were significantly reduced in the low-fat dietary group both during the dietary intervention period and throughout the 16.1-year cumulative follow-up period. Authors conclude that women assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern had a significantly reduced risk of death from breast cancer.
Purpose Earlier Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial findings suggested that a low-fat eating pattern may reduce breast cancers with greater mortality. Therefore, as a primary outcome-related analysis from a randomized prevention trial, we examined the long-term influence of this intervention on deaths as a result of and after breast cancer during 8.5 years (median) of dietary intervention and cumulatively for all breast cancers diagnosed during 16.1 years (median) of follow-up. Patients and Methods The trial randomly assigned 48,835 postmenopausal women with normal mammograms and without prior breast cancer from 1993 to 1998 at 40 US clinical centers to a dietary intervention with goals of a reduction of fat intake to 20% of energy and an increased intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains (40%; n = 19,541) or to a usual diet comparison (60%; n = 29,294). Results In the dietary group, fat intake and body weight decreased (all P < .001). During the 8.5-year dietary intervention, with 1,764 incident breast cancers, fewer deaths occurred as a result of breast cancer in the dietary group, which was not statistically significant (27 deaths [0.016% per year] v 61 deaths [0.024% per year]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.06; P = .08). During the same period, deaths after breast cancer (n = 134) were significantly reduced (40 deaths [0.025% per year] v 94 deaths [0.038% per year]; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.94; P = .02) by the dietary intervention. During the 16.1-year follow-up, with 3,030 incident breast cancers, deaths after breast cancer also were significantly reduced (234 deaths [0.085% per year] v 443 deaths [0.11% per year]; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = .01) in the dietary group. Conclusion Compared with a usual diet comparison group, a low-fat dietary pattern led to a lower incidence of deaths after breast cancer.