Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Content on Intrahepatocellular and Intramyocellular Lipids during a 6-Day Hypercaloric, High Sucrose Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Normal Weight Healthy Subjects.
Plain language summary
High sugar diets can lead to increased fat accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscles, as intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) respectively. Elevation in these lipid concentrations is associated with an increased risk of various chronic diseases. The aim of this randomised crossover trial was to assess whether the consequences of a high sugar diet differed according to the protein and fat composition in 12 healthy adults. At the beginning of each trial period, participants consumed a 3-day weight maintenance diet followed by a 6-day high calorie, high sugar diet consisting of either low protein-high fat or high protein-low fat with a 4-8 week washout period. IHCL and IMCL concentrations, energy expenditure and blood metabolites were monitored after each weight maintenance diet and after each 6-day intervention diet period. This study found that both diets led to increased lipid concentrations, most notably the in liver cells. Lipid increases induced by the high protein-low fat diet were significantly lower than those induced by the low protein-high fat diet. Based on these results, the authors conclude that when overfed on a high sugar diet, high protein-low fat markedly reduces the amount of fat accumulation in liver and muscle cells and suggest that either dietary protein may have a protective effect of sugar and fat may have an additive adverse effect.
Sucrose overfeeding increases intrahepatocellular (IHCL) and intramyocellular (IMCL) lipid concentrations in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that these effects would be modulated by diet protein/fat content. Twelve healthy men and women were studied on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over trial. On each occasion, they received a 3-day 12% protein weight maintenance diet (WM) followed by a 6-day hypercaloric high sucrose diet (150% energy requirements). On one occasion the hypercaloric diet contained 5% protein and 25% fat (low protein-high fat, LP-HF), on the other occasion it contained 20% protein and 10% fat (high protein-low fat, HP-LF). IHCL and IMCL concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) were measured after WM, and again after HP-LF/LP-HF. IHCL increased from 25.0 ± 3.6 after WM to 147.1 ± 26.9 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) after LP-HF and from 30.3 ± 7.7 to 57.8 ± 14.8 after HP-LF (two-way ANOVA with interaction: p < 0.001 overfeeding x protein/fat content). IMCL increased from 7.1 ± 0.6 to 8.8 ± 0.7 mmol/kg ww after LP-HF and from 6.2 ± 0.6 to 6.9 ± 0.6 after HP-LF, (p < 0.002). These results indicate that liver and muscle fat deposition is enhanced when sucrose overfeeding is associated with a low protein, high fat diet compared to a high protein, low fat diet.
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Its Association with Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Spanish University Students.
Plain language summary
The Mediterranean diet (MD) represents a dietary pattern that incorporates healthy traditional eating habits which includes high consumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts, beans, whole grains, ﬁsh, and unsaturated fats, and low consumption of red meat and dairy products. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS-14 items) is a valid instrument for the estimation of adherence to the MD. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Estimate the prevalence of the adherence to the MD 2. Assess the association of adherence to the MD with physical ﬁtness and body composition 3. Know the ability of each MEDAS item in the same sample to predict MD adherence. This study is a cross-sectional observational study which was performed with 310 ﬁrst-year Spanish university students, aged between 18 and 30 years. Results indicate low prevalence of good adherence to the MD; and the participants with good adherence had high protein and low-fat intake compared to those with medium to low adherence. Furthermore, higher levels of physical fitness were also noticed amongst participants with good adherence to the MD. Twelve of the 14 items of the MEDAS score were associated with a high adherence to the MD. Authors conclude that MD adherence benefits both cardiorespiratory and muscular ﬁtness amongst young adults.
undefined: The aims of this study were to assess the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) with physical fitness and body composition in Spanish university students and to determine the ability to predict the MD adherence of each Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) item. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 310 first-year university students. Adherence to the MD was evaluated with MEDAS-14 items. Anthropometric variables, body composition, and physical fitness were assessed. Muscle strength was determined based on handgrip strength and the standing long jump test. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was measured using the Course-Navette test. Only 24% of the university students had good adherence to the MD. The ANCOVA models showed a significant difference between participants with high adherence to the MD and those with medium and low adherence in CRF ( = 0.017) and dynamometry ( = 0.005). Logistic binary regression showed that consuming >2 vegetables/day (OR = 20.1; CI: 10.1-30.1; < 0.001), using olive oil (OR = 10.6; CI: 1.4-19.8; = 0.021), consuming <3 commercial sweets/week (OR = 10.1; IC: 5.1-19.7; < 0.001), and consuming ≥3 fruits/day (OR = 8.8; CI: 4.9-15.7; < 0.001) were the items most associated with high adherence to the MD. In conclusion, a high level of adherence to the MD is associated with high-level muscular fitness and CRF in Spanish university students.
A whole-grain diet reduces peripheral insulin resistance and improves glucose kinetics in obese adults: A randomized-controlled trial.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2018;82:111-117
Plain language summary
Literature shows that dietary whole-grain intake is associated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between a whole-grain diet and insulin resistance and glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial involving fourteen middle-aged, obese adults at risk for diabetes. Randomisation was carried out prior to metabolic testing. Results indicate that whole-grain intake as part of a mixed-meal diet significantly improved post-prandial (after a meal) glucose metabolism in middle-aged obese adults. Furthermore, both whole-grain and refined-grain interventions induced about 3–6% weight and fat loss. Authors conclude that whole-grain intake effectively promotes glycaemic control by improving insulin action.
BACKGROUND Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but the mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38 ± 2 y; BMI, 34.0 ± 1.1 kg/m ). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6- H ]-glucose and [U- C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry. Peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance was assessed as 1/(rate of disposal/insulin), and endogenous glucose rates of appearance (R ) iAUC × insulin iAUC , respectively. Both diets met ADA nutritional guidelines and contained either whole-grain (50 g per 1000 kcal) or equivalent refined-grain. All food was provided for 8 wk. with an 8-10 wk. washout period between diets. RESULTS Post-prandial glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated - fasting carbohydrate oxidation) improvements were greater after whole-grain compared to the refined-grain diet (P < 0.05). Compared to baseline, body fat (~2 kg) and hepatic R insulin resistance was reduced by both diets, while fasting glucose and exogenous glucose-meal were unchanged after both interventions. Changes in peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic flexibility correlated with improved glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Whole-grains reduced diabetes risk and the mechanisms appear to work through reduced post-prandial blood glucose and peripheral insulin resistance that were statistically linked to enhanced metabolic flexibility.
Carbohydrate restriction with postmeal walking effectively mitigates postprandial hyperglycemia and improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes.
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology. 2018;314(1):H105-H113
Plain language summary
Prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major treatment goal. Within this, diet and exercise remain the cornerstone lifestyle therapies. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 4 days of a low-carbohydrate diet, with or without daily post-meal walking, on vascular health in individuals with T2D. The study recruited sixteen individuals with physician-diagnosed T2D to complete 3 short-term controlled intervention periods in a randomised crossover design. Results indicate that attenuating postprandial hyperglycaemia (a very high rise in blood sugar following a meal) by restricting carbohydrates and post-meal walking can improve vascular health in individuals with T2D. Authors conclude that carbohydrate restriction and post-meal exercise may represent an effective strategy to mitigate the negative effects of postprandial hyperglycaemia and reduce cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.
Postprandial hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on endothelial function. Restricting carbohydrate intake and postmeal walking have each been shown to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia, but their combination and subsequent effects on endothelial function have not been investigated. Here, we sought to examine the effect of blunting postprandial hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate diet, with or without postmeal walking exercise, on markers of vascular health in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover design, individuals with T2D ( n = 11) completed three 4-day controlled diet interventions consisting of 1) low-carbohydrate diet alone (LC), 2) low-carbohydrate diet with 15-min postmeal walks (LC + Ex), and 3) low-fat control diet (CON). Fasting blood samples and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) were measured before and after each intervention. Total circulating microparticles (MPs), endothelial MPs, platelet MPs, monocyte-platelet aggregates, and adhesion molecules were assessed as biomarkers of vascular health. There was a significant condition × time interaction for %FMD ( P = 0.01), with post hoc tests revealing improved %FMD after LC + Ex (+0.8 ± 1.0%, P = 0.02), with no change after LC or CON. Endothelial MPs were significantly reduced with the LC diet by ~45% (from 99 ± 60 to 44 ± 31 MPs/μl, P = 0.02), with no change after LC + Ex or CON (interaction: P = 0.04). Total MPs were lower (main effect time: P = 0.02), whereas monocyte-platelet aggregates were higher (main effect time: P < 0.01) after all interventions. Plasma adhesion molecules and C-reactive protein were unaltered. Attenuating postprandial hyperglycemic excursions using a low-carbohydrate diet combined with postmeal walking appears to be an effective strategy to improve endothelial function in individuals with T2D. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Carbohydrate restriction and postmeal walking lower postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that the combination significantly improved endothelial function and that carbohydrate restriction alone reduced circulating endothelial microparticles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/low-carb-diet-and-exercise-improve-endothelial-health/ .
The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST).
Plain language summary
The protein, fat and carbohydrate composition of diets can modify heart function abnormalities associated with insulin resistance (when cells in the muscles, fat, and liver do not respond well to insulin and cannot easily take up glucose from the blood) and therefore reduce the risk of diabetes. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a reduced carbohydrate diet that was high in both protein and dietary fibre on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in overweight and obese women at risk of diabetes, independent of weight loss. The study is a randomised control trial which recruited 89 women at risk of diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to either a standard diet or a relatively high protein and fibre diet group for a period of 10 weeks. Results indicate that a modest increase in consumption of dietary protein and fibre, without emphasis on energy reduction, improved several cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight women. There were modest reductions in body mass, total body fat and central body fat, without loss of lean mass and improvements in total serum and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Authors conclude that the heart function benefits achieved with moderate increases to fibre and protein, support the use of this dietary approach for overweight individuals at risk of diabetes.
undefined: Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate ( = 42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30 g/day) diet (HPHFib) ( = 47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method-the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST). Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; = 0.013) in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.
Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Plain language summary
With the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency, identifying cost-effective, preventative strategies are imperative. Vitamin D plays a well-known role in bone mineralisation, however its protective role against chronic diseases is not very well understood. The aim of this trial is to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation will increase insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as to determine whether vitamin D deficiency underlies the inflammatory properties associated with obesity. 50 overweight adults between 18 and 60 years old were recruited and assigned to receive either 4,000 IU vitamin D daily or identical placebo capsules for 16 weeks. This study elucidates the potential role vitamin D supplementation could have on preventing diabetes and its associated co-morbidities. It also provides comprehensive insight into the potential mechanisms of action. The authors conclude that this trial can corroborate existing knowledge while expanding the understanding on the role of vitamin D in the inflammatory response and subsequent development of disease.
BACKGROUND Despite Australia's sunny climate, low vitamin D levels are increasingly prevalent. Sun exposure is limited by long working hours, an increase in time spent indoors, and sun protection practices, and there is limited dietary vitamin D fortification. While the importance of vitamin D for bone mineralization is well known, its role as a protective agent against chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is less understood. Observational and limited intervention studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin sensitivity and secretion, mainly via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby decreasing the risk of development and progression of type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of this trial is to investigate whether improved plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), obtained through vitamin D supplementation, will increase insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A secondary aim is to determine whether these relationships are mediated by a reduction in underlying subclinical inflammation associated with obesity. METHODS/DESIGN Fifty overweight but otherwise healthy nondiabetic adults between 18 and 60 years old, with low vitamin D levels (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l), will be randomly assigned to intervention or placebo. At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review and anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, an intravenous glucose tolerance test, muscle and fat biopsies, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, sun exposure, back and knee pain, and depression. The intervention group will receive a first dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4,000 IU vitamin D (cholecalciferol) daily, while the placebo group will receive apparently identical capsules, both for a period of 16 weeks. All measurements will be repeated at follow-up, with the primary outcome measure expressed as a change from baseline in insulin sensitivity and secretion for the intervention group compared with the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures will compare changes in anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors, and inflammatory markers. DISCUSSION The trial will provide much needed clinical evidence on the impact of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and secretion and its underlying mechanisms, which are relevant for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02112721 .