Dieting is associated with reduced bone mineral accrual in a longitudinal cohort of girls.
BMC public health. 2018;18(1):1285
Plain language summary
Adolescence is a critical period for bone development. Maximizing bone development during adolescence (mean age of 12.5 years) may result in greater adult bone mineral content and protection against osteoporosis and fracture later in life. The objective of the study is to determine whether bone mineral content in adolescent girls is related to self-reported dieting, eating, and weight-related behaviours. The study recruited 197 non-Hispanic white 5-year-old girls who were assessed every 2-years from age 5 to age 15 years. Results show that who begin dieting in preadolescence have a higher risk of impaired bone mineral build-up compared to girls who began dieting later in adolescence or did not diet in adolescence. Authors conclude that measures of disordered eating attitudes in healthy children are associated with poorer bone health. Interventions to prevent dieting in preadolescents and adolescents may improve bone health.
BACKGROUND Peak bone mass accrual occurs during adolescence, a time when dieting and related eating behaviors are common. Impaired bone mineral accrual is a known consequence of eating disorders in adolescents, but the effects of subclinical dieting behaviors on bone mineral content (BMC) have not been described in this age group. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether dieting behavior in preadolescence and adolescence is associated with bone mineral accrual in adolescent girls. METHODS Non-Hispanic white girls (n = 139) were followed in a longitudinal cohort study. BMC was assessed at ages 9 and 15y. Dieting to lose weight was reported every 2 years, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, eating attitudes, weight concerns, and body esteem were assessed at age 11y. Girls were classified as "early dieters" if they first dieted by age 11y (31.7%), "adolescent dieters" if they first dieted after 11y (46.8%), or non-dieters if they did not report dieting by 15 y (21.6%). The effect of dieting related variables on BMC at 15y and change in BMC from 9 to 15y was assessed using linear regression, controlling for height, weight, BMI, physical activity, and pubertal status. RESULTS Girls who first reported dieting to lose weight by age 11y had a 4.2% lower bone mineral accrual across adolescence (p = 0.02) and 3.1% lower BMC at age 15y (p = 0.005) than girls who first reported dieting after 11y or not at all. Number of weight control behaviors used, dietary restraint, and weight concerns were also negatively associated with BMC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Dieting behavior in preadolescence is associated with reduced bone mineral accrual. Strategies to promote optimal bone development should include prevention of dieting. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03342430, November 17, 2017. Retrospectively registered.
Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative.
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2018;19(1):1
Plain language summary
Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) typically present with greater systemic inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Currently it is unclear whether these factors are associated with early-stage OA, namely bone marrow lesions and swelling. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis in early-stage OA. Using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, 343 participants were enrolled and tested for markers of inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Bone marrow lesions and swelling were also assessed through imaging results. Results indicate that among individuals without OA, those with greater systemic inflammation were more likely to have bone marrow lesions and knee swelling. According to these results, the authors conclude that systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis are related to structural features of osteoarthritis. Future studies should explore whether these factors are predictive of OA in order to identify therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of knee OA.
BACKGROUND Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm ) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm ). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. RESULTS We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m , PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were not significantly associated with the presence of baseline effusion or BML. CONCLUSIONS Among individuals without knee OA, CRP may be related to the presence of BMLs and effusion among normal weight individuals. Abnormal GSP may be associated with effusion. Future studies should explore whether inflammation and glucose homeostasis are predictive of symptomatic knee OA.