Cigarette Smoke Extract Disturbs Mitochondria-Regulated Airway Epithelial Cell Responses to Pneumococci.
Plain language summary
Cigarette smoking can affect airway epithelial cells, causing overproduction of mucus, damage, and inflammation, which may result in the progression of airway diseases. Airway epithelial cells (AEC) rely on mitochondria for energy, and mitochondrial dysfunction may affect innate immunity and the integrity of the airway epithelium. Cigarette smoking is found to accelerate mitochondrial damage within AEC. Maintaining a normal microbial composition within the respiratory tract is essential for maintaining immunity. There is evidence that smoking cigarettes disrupts the microbial composition and increases the spread of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) which causes inflammation. By exposing 16HBE cells to Sp and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), this study investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on mitochondrial dysfunction in ACE in an in vitro model. Additionally, the study examined the direct and indirect pathways involved in cigarette smoking-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and altered innate immune response to Sp infection. CSE exposure decreases mitochondrial complex protein levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, which affects energy production. It also increases mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial degradation. All these factors lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in ACE. CSE exposure to ACE was associated with altered gene expression in the tight and adherence junctions that serve as a protective barrier against pathogens and pollutants and reduced type I interferon immune responses to Sp. Using the results of this study, healthcare professionals can gain a better understanding of the impact of cigarette smoking on mitochondrial dysfunction and how it increases susceptibility to Sp-related immune responses. It is necessary to conduct further studies to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on mitochondrial dysfunction, microbial composition disruption, and the interaction between AECs and elevated immune responses.
Mitochondrial functionality is crucial for the execution of physiologic functions of metabolically active cells in the respiratory tract including airway epithelial cells (AECs). Cigarette smoke is known to impair mitochondrial function in AECs. However, the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction in AECs to airway infection and airway epithelial barrier dysfunction is unknown. In this study, we used an in vitro model based on AECs exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) followed by an infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp). The levels of oxidative stress as an indicator of mitochondrial stress were quantified upon CSE and Sp treatment. In addition, expression of proteins associated with mitophagy, mitochondrial content, and biogenesis as well as mitochondrial fission and fusion was quantified. Transcriptional AEC profiling was performed to identify the potential changes in innate immune pathways and correlate them with indices of mitochondrial function. We observed that CSE exposure substantially altered mitochondrial function in AECs by suppressing mitochondrial complex protein levels, reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing mitochondrial stress and mitophagy. Moreover, CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction correlated with reduced enrichment of genes involved in apical junctions and innate immune responses to Sp, particularly type I interferon responses. Together, our results demonstrated that CSE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to impaired innate immune responses to Sp.
A high-carbohydrate diet lowers the rate of adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2022;76(9):1339-1342
Plain language summary
The hormone insulin plays a fundamental role in cellular nutrient signalling, including mitochondrial function. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a high-carbohydrate diet would lower measures of mitochondrial respiration in adipose tissue, consistent with the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. This study is an ancillary study of the Framingham State Food Study, in which the primary outcome was total energy expenditure. Data of twenty-seven participants were included in this report. Results show that a high-carbohydrate diet lowers mitochondrial respiratory function. Authors conclude the study’s sample may not reflect mitochondrial activity in all body fat depots. Thus, further research is required in order to replicate the study’s findings, conduct quantitative energetic studies, examine generalizability to other populations and experimental conditions, and explore translation to the prevention and treatment of obesity.
Adipocyte mitochondrial respiration may influence metabolic fuel partitioning into oxidation versus storage, with implications for whole-body energy expenditure. Although insulin has been shown to influence mitochondrial respiration, the effects of dietary macronutrient composition have not been well characterized. The aim of this exploratory study was to test the hypothesis that a high-carbohydrate diet lowers the oxygen flux of adipocyte mitochondria ex vivo. Among participants in a randomized-controlled weight-loss maintenance feeding trial, those consuming a high-carbohydrate diet (60% carbohydrate as a proportion of total energy, n = 10) had lower rates of maximal adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration than those consuming a moderate-carbohydrate diet (40%, n = 8, p = 0.039) or a low-carbohydrate diet (20%, n = 9, p = 0.005) after 10 to 15 weeks. This preliminary finding may provide a mechanism for postulated calorie-independent effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure and fat deposition, potentially through the actions of insulin on fuel partitioning.
Molecular Regulators of Muscle Mass and Mitochondrial Remodeling Are Not Influenced by Testosterone Administration in Young Women.
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2022;13:874748
Plain language summary
Testosterone is a sex hormone normally found in higher amounts in adult males than females. Testosterone plays a number of important roles, including influencing muscle size and strength. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to increase lean mass and muscle strength in women as well as men. However, female-only studies are limited, and the precise mechanisms underlying these changes are not well understood. This randomised control trial examined the effect of testosterone administration on regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial function in muscle samples collected from young women. 48 healthy, pre-menopausal women were assigned to receive either 10mg of transdermal testosterone gel per day, or a placebo, for 10 weeks. Muscle samples were collected via biopsy before and after the intervention. Testosterone administration did not appear to have a significant effect on androgen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, anabolic signalling, or mitochondrial remodelling in muscle tissue. The researchers concluded that improvements in muscle size and oxidative capacity following testosterone administration cannot be explained by changes in protein expression related to muscle protein turnover or mitochondrial remodelling. The authors went on to suggest that the small sample size in this study may have reduced the ability to detect small but biologically relevant changes in protein levels. Within the research, there is large variability among studies in terms of sex, age, route of administration and length of treatment, which makes putting these findings into context of the wider literature difficult.
Testosterone (T) administration has previously been shown to improve muscle size and oxidative capacity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations in human skeletal muscle remain to be determined. Here, we examined the effect of moderate-dose T administration on molecular regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial remodeling in muscle samples collected from young women. Forty-eight healthy, physically active, young women (28 ± 4 years) were assigned in a random double-blind fashion to receive either T (10 mg/day) or placebo for 10-weeks. Muscle biopsies collected before and after the intervention period were divided into sub-cellular fractions and total protein levels of molecular regulators of muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial remodeling were analyzed using Western blotting. T administration had no effect on androgen receptor or 5α-reductase levels, nor on proteins involved in the mTORC1-signaling pathway (mTOR, S6K1, eEF2 and RPS6). Neither did it affect the abundance of proteins associated with proteasomal protein degradation (MAFbx, MuRF-1 and UBR5) and autophagy-lysosomal degradation (AMPK, ULK1 and p62). T administration also had no effect on proteins in the mitochondria enriched fraction regulating mitophagy (Beclin, BNIP3, LC3B-I, LC3B-II and LC3B-II/I ratio) and morphology (Mitofilin), and it did not alter the expression of mitochondrial fission- (FIS1 and DRP1) or fusion factors (OPA1 and MFN2). In summary, these data indicate that improvements in muscle size and oxidative capacity in young women in response to moderate-dose T administration cannot be explained by alterations in total expression of molecular factors known to regulate muscle protein turnover or mitochondrial remodeling.
Urolithin A improves muscle strength, exercise performance, and biomarkers of mitochondrial health in a randomized trial in middle-aged adults.
Cell reports. Medicine. 2022;3(5):100633
Plain language summary
A gradual decline in muscle mass and strength with aging is natural, however, environmental factors such as diet and exercise dictate the trajectory of the decline. Exercise and healthy nutrition are the primary interventions to prevent and manage age-associated decline in muscle health and metabolic diseases. This study was designed as a proof-of-concept investigation of the efficacy of long-term oral supplementation with urolithin A (UA) on physiological endpoints in middle-aged adults. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. An overweight middle-aged population with a high body mass index and average physical endurance was selected for the study. Results showed improved lower-body muscle strength in the hamstring skeletal muscle at both doses of UA. Furthermore, it positively impacted aerobic endurance and physical-performance measures such as walking distance. Authors conclude that supplementation with UA is safe and increases circulating levels of UA.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
- Urolithin A (UA) is a microbiome metabolite – known as a postbiotic - of elligitannins and polyphenolic compounds found in some plant foods including pomegratate, berries and walnuts.
- In animal models, UA has previously been shown to have a range of potential health benefits involving induction of mitophagy and on mitochondrial function, as well as on disease states including osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.
- The current study sought to establish proof-of-concept of the efficacy and safety of long-term UA supplementation on physiological endpoints in middle-aged adults.
- The primary outcome was peak power output and secondary outcomes included a range of clinical and physiological parameters linked to muscle strength, exercise tolerance and physical performance.
- The study tested UA in 500mg and 1000 mg doses against placebo in a 3-arm randomized-controlled trial in n= 88 subjects aged 40-64y who were healthy, overweight (BMI 25.0-34.9 kg/m2), sedentary, and who had a low VO2max at study inclusion. 79 subjects completed the study.
- Subjects were assessed at baseline, midpoint (2 months) and endpoint (4 months). In addition to the UA intervention, subjects were asked to maintain low physical activity status for the duration of the trial, and avoid pomegranates and supplements known to influence muscle performance (high protein, CoQ10m vitamin B3 or L-carnitine).
- Though a difference in peak power output (primary outcome) was not observed, muscle strength improved by up to c. 12% with 500 mg daily UA (p=0.027). With 1000 mg UA daily, aerobic endurance improved by up to 15% (p=0.03), gait speed increased by 7% (p=0.004), and in the 6-minute walk test subjects improved by 7% (p=0.008) and walked on average more than 30 additional meters, indicating a clinically meaningful difference in mobility.
- In addition, subjects in the UA groups had improved biomarkers of cellular health. With 1000 mg UA daily, inflammation was reduced (CRP, p<0.05; IFN-γ and TNF-α, both p<0.05). In addition, biomarkers of mitochondrial efficiency were also improved with 500 mg UA daily, Iing increased protein levels related to improved mitophagy, and expression of genes belonging to mitochondria.
- UA was deemed as safe and well tolerated at both 500 mg and 1000 mg doses for 4 months’ administration.
- A strength of the study was that the groups were balanced for all physiological parameters at baseline. However, the ratio of females was 2:1, and ethnicity was mainly western European. This may limit interpretation of the findings.
- All authors except one are either employees, board members or members of the scientific advisory board of Amazentis SA, who both manufacture Mitopure, the UA supplement used, and who funded this trial.
Clinical practice applications:
- Mitophagy is an important step in improving mitochondrial health. This study demonstrates the potential of UA to activate this pathway.
- In healthy middle-aged adults who are overweight or obese, sedentary and with low physical performance, oral UA supplementation at a sufficient dose and duration may:
- increase muscle strength
- increase mitophagy proteins in human skeletal muscle, as well as various other mitochondrial markers
- increase exercise performance and aerobic exercise
- be a valuable intervention to consider in clients who are suffering from mitochondrial dysfunction
Considerations for future research:
- This study was exploratory and the sample size for some of the outcomes was very small and inadequate to demonstrate true statistical significance. Future studies of similar design are needed to confirm the findings
- Nevertheless, the study was well-structured with carefully elaborated markers. It could be used as a template for future studies.
Targeting mitophagy to activate the recycling of faulty mitochondria during aging is a strategy to mitigate muscle decline. We present results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in middle-aged adults where we administer a postbiotic compound Urolithin A (Mitopure), a known mitophagy activator, at two doses for 4 months (NCT03464500). The data show significant improvements in muscle strength (∼12%) with intake of Urolithin A. We observe clinically meaningful improvements with Urolithin A on aerobic endurance (peak oxygen oxygen consumption [VO2]) and physical performance (6 min walk test) but do not notice a significant improvement on peak power output (primary endpoint). Levels of plasma acylcarnitines and C-reactive proteins are significantly lower with Urolithin A, indicating higher mitochondrial efficiency and reduced inflammation. We also examine expression of proteins linked to mitophagy and mitochondrial metabolism in skeletal muscle and find a significant increase with Urolithin A administration. This study highlights the benefit of Urolithin A to improve muscle performance.
Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Mitochondrial Respiration and Physical Performance in Middle-Aged Athletes: A Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.
Sports medicine - open. 2022;8(1):22
Plain language summary
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) utilizes 100% oxygen in an environmental pressure higher than one absolute atmosphere. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intermittent HBOT protocol on maximal physical performance and its effect on mitochondrial function in middle-aged master athletes. This study is a double-blind, randomized, 1:1 ratio, placebo-controlled study of healthy middle-aged master athletes. Thirty-seven healthy master athletes, aged 40–50, who performed aerobic sports at least four times a week at moderate-high performance were enrolled in the study. Results show that HBOT may significantly enhance physical performance beyond training in healthy master athletes. Moreover, HBOT may directly improve mitochondrial respiration and increase mitochondrial mass. Thus, the main improvements include maximal oxygen consumption, power and the anaerobic threshold. Authors conclude that HBOT can enhance physical performance in healthy adults.
INTRODUCTION Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to increase endurance performance but has yet to be evaluated in placebo-controlled clinical trials. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of an intermittent HBOT protocol on maximal physical performance and mitochondrial function in middle-aged master athletes. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 37 healthy middle-aged (40-50) master athletes was performed between 2018 and 2020. The subjects were exposed to 40 repeated sessions of either HBOT [two absolute atmospheres (ATA), breathing 100% oxygen for 1 h] or SHAM (1.02ATA, breathing air for 1 h). RESULTS Out of 37 athletes, 16 HBOT and 15 SHAM allocated athletes were included in the final analysis. Following HBOT, there was a significant increase in the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2Max) (p = 0.010, effect size(es) = 0.989) and in the oxygen consumption measured at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT)(es = 0.837) compared to the SHAM group. Following HBOT, there were significant increases in both maximal oxygen phosphorylation capacity (es = 1.085, p = 0.04), maximal uncoupled capacity (es = 0.956, p = 0.02) and mitochondrial mass marker MTG (p = 0.0002) compared to the SHAM sessions. CONCLUSION HBOT enhances physical performance in healthy middle-age master athletes, including VO2max, power and VO2AT. The mechanisms may be related to significant improvements in mitochondrial respiration and increased mitochondrial mass. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524989 (May 15, 2018).
Comparing Acute, High Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Intake on Transcriptional Biomarkers, Fuel Utilisation and Exercise Performance in Trained Male Runners.
Plain language summary
Dietary modification to improve exercise endurance has become a popular strategy. The reduction of carbohydrates to enhance adaptations due to training has been shown on a cellular level. In low carbohydrate diets, fat is the usual substitute, however long-term adherence to this is often difficult. Using protein instead of fat may be an alternative, but there is little research on this. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a short-term high-protein, reduced carbohydrate diet compared to a high-carbohydrate diet in combination with endurance running on exercise performance and cellular adaptations. The results showed that any cellular adaptations were due to fuel availability, rather than the fuel type and that a high protein diet compromised high intensity exercise performance. It was concluded that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in combination with endurance training is of no benefit to endurance running performance. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend that athletes and especially runners who wish to improve endurance do not switch to a high-protein, low carbohydrate diet and that other dietary modifications are investigated.
Manipulating dietary macronutrient intake may modulate adaptive responses to exercise, and improve endurance performance. However, there is controversy as to the impact of short-term dietary modification on athletic performance. In a parallel-groups, repeated measures study, 16 trained endurance runners (maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max): 64.2 ± 5.6 mL·kg-1·min-1) were randomly assigned to, and provided with, either a high-protein, reduced-carbohydrate (PRO) or a high-carbohydrate (CHO) isocaloric-matched diet. Participants maintained their training load over 21-consecutive days with dietary intake consisting of 7-days habitual intake (T1), 7-days intervention diet (T2) and 7-days return to habitual intake (T3). Following each 7-day dietary period (T1-T3), a micro-muscle biopsy was taken for assessment of gene expression, before participants underwent laboratory assessment of a 10 km treadmill run at 75% V˙O2max, followed by a 95% V˙O2max time to exhaustion (TTE) trial. The PRO diet resulted in a modest change (1.37-fold increase, p = 0.016) in AMPK expression, coupled with a significant increase in fat oxidation (0.29 ± 0.05 to 0.59 ± 0.05 g·min-1, p < 0.0001). However, a significant reduction of 23.3% (p = 0.0003) in TTE post intervention was observed; this reverted back to pre levels following a return to the habitual diet. In the CHO group, whilst no change in sub-maximal fuel utilisation occurred at T2, a significant 6.5% increase in TTE performance (p = 0.05), and a modest, but significant, increase in AMPK (p = 0.042) and PPAR (p = 0.029) mRNA expression compared to T1 were observed; with AMPK (p = 0.011) and PPAR (p = 0.044) remaining significantly elevated at T3. In conclusion, a 7-day isocaloric high protein diet significantly compromised high intensity exercise performance in trained runners with no real benefit on gene markers of training adaptation. A significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was observed post PRO intervention, but this returned to pre levels once the habitual diet was re-introduced, suggesting that the response was driven via fuel availability rather than cellular adaptation. A short-term high protein, low carbohydrate diet in combination with endurance training is not preferential for endurance running performance.
Lipids activate skeletal muscle mitochondrial fission and quality control networks to induce insulin resistance in humans.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2021;121:154803
Plain language summary
Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiological mechanism in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and ectopic lipid accumulation are known to directly contribute to the onset of insulin resistance. Authors hypothesised that lipid infusion would increase dynamin related protein 1 [a type of protein]-mediated mitochondrial fission in skeletal muscle independent of function and content, consequently reducing peripheral insulin sensitivity. The study included sedentary but otherwise healthy adults who were prospectively randomized to receive either lipid or saline infusion to isolate the direct contribution of fatty acids to skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics. Results show that mitochondrial fission and quality control networks are activated in response to lipid infusion which occurs independent of changes in mitochondrial content or capacity and contributes to the onset of insulin resistance in healthy humans. Authors conclude that treatments that limit lipid-induced activation of mitochondrial fission and/or quality control processes may have therapeutic value in the treatment of insulin resistance.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS A diminution in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function due to ectopic lipid accumulation and excess nutrient intake is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the functional integrity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle remains highly controversial. METHODS 19 healthy adults (age:28.4 ± 1.7 years; BMI:22.7 ± 0.3 kg/m2) received an overnight intravenous infusion of lipid (20% Intralipid) or saline followed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity using a randomized crossover design. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained after the overnight lipid infusion to evaluate activation of mitochondrial dynamics proteins, ex-vivo mitochondrial membrane potential, ex-vivo oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer capacity, and mitochondrial ultrastructure. RESULTS Overnight lipid infusion increased dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 616 and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) expression (P = 0.003 and P = 0.008, respectively) in skeletal muscle while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (P = 0.042). The lipid infusion also increased mitochondrial-associated lipid droplet formation (P = 0.011), the number of dilated cristae, and the presence of autophagic vesicles without altering mitochondrial number or respiratory capacity. Additionally, lipid infusion suppressed peripheral glucose disposal (P = 0.004) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that activation of mitochondrial fission and quality control occur early in the onset of insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle. Targeting mitochondrial dynamics and quality control represents a promising new pharmacological approach for treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02697201, ClinicalTrials.gov.
Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2021;372(6547):1224-1229
Plain language summary
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a co-substrate for NAD+-consuming enzymes that are essential in the regulation of diverse biological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation on i) body composition, ii) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, and insulin signalling; and iii) muscle NAD+ content and global gene expression profile. This study is a 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in postmenopausal women with prediabetes who were overweight or obese. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prediabetes were randomised to the placebo group (n=12) or the NMN group (n=13). Results show that 10 weeks of NMN supplementation increases muscle insulin signalling and muscle insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women with prediabetes who are overweight or obese. Authors conclude that the precise mechanism(s) responsible for these metabolic effects and the potential metabolic benefits of NMN supplementation in other patient populations remain to be explored.
In rodents, obesity and aging impair nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, which contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) availability is a rate-limiting factor in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis. We conducted a 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of NMN supplementation on metabolic function in postmenopausal women with prediabetes who were overweight or obese. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle insulin signaling [phosphorylation of protein kinase AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)] increased after NMN supplementation but did not change after placebo treatment. NMN supplementation up-regulated the expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β and other genes related to muscle remodeling. These results demonstrate that NMN increases muscle insulin sensitivity, insulin signaling, and remodeling in women with prediabetes who are overweight or obese (clinicaltrial.gov NCT03151239).
A Single Bout of Premeal Resistance Exercise Improves Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Obese Men with Prediabetes.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2021;53(4):694-703
Plain language summary
Prediabetes is a metabolic condition defined by elevated fasting (impaired fasting glucose) and/or postprandial (impaired glucose tolerance) plasma glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise on postprandial glucose metabolism following a mixed meal in obese, sedentary men with prediabetes. This study is a randomised, cross-over study design which enrolled ten participants. Participants were aged 39-62 years, obese, and demonstrated insulin resistance with compensatory increases in beta cell function. Results show that a single bout of resistance exercise performed 4.5 hours before a mixed meal (as opposed to an oral glucose tolerance test) reduced total postprandial glucose appearance, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced the glycaemic response to a mixed meal. However, it did not have effect on glucose oxidation in obese men with prediabetes. Improvements in insulin sensitivity were complemented by reduced postprandial insulin concentration. Authors conclude that further investigation is needed to elucidate how resistance exercise affects exogenous (meal) vs endogenous postprandial glucose metabolism, and if additional bouts of exercise (i.e. training) produce superior outcomes for this population.
INTRODUCTION Prediabetes is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although resistance exercise (RE) is recommended for individuals with prediabetes, the effects of RE on postprandial glucose metabolism in this population are poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate how RE affects postprandial glucose kinetics, insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, and glucose oxidation during the subsequent meal in sedentary men with obesity and prediabetes. METHODS We studied 10 sedentary men with obesity (body mass index, 33 ± 3 kg·m-2) and prediabetes by using a randomized, cross-over study design. After an overnight fast, participants completed either a single bout of whole-body RE (seven exercises, 3 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 80% one-repetition maximum each) or an equivalent period of rest. Participants subsequently completed a mixed meal test in conjunction with an intravenous [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion to determine basal and postprandial glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) from plasma, insulin sensitivity, and the insulinogenic index (a measure of beta cell function). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 90 min postmeal to evaluate pyruvate-supported and maximal mitochondrial respiration. Whole-body carbohydrate oxidation was assessed using indirect calorimetry. RESULTS RE significantly reduced the postprandial rise in glucose Ra and plasma glucose concentration. Postprandial insulin sensitivity was significantly greater after RE, whereas postprandial plasma insulin concentration was significantly reduced. RE had no effect on the insulinogenic index, postprandial pyruvate respiration, or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION A single bout of RE has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose metabolism in men with obesity and prediabetes by increasing postprandial insulin sensitivity, reducing the postprandial rise in glucose Ra, and reducing postprandial plasma insulin concentration.
Protective effect of probiotics in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in people with obesity and is characterised by high amounts of fat stored in the liver. Diet and exercise are the standard treatments, however recent studies have indicated that the gut microbiota may have an important role. This randomised control trial of 140 patients with NAFLD, aimed to assess the effect of probiotics when added to standard therapy for 3 months. The results showed that although gut microbiota, some aspects of liver function, blood lipids and blood sugars were all improved in individuals on standard therapy, there were additional improvements in those on standard therapy plus probiotics. It was concluded that although standard therapy alone is adequate to improve NAFLD, probiotics plus standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone and effective in treatment of NAFLD. This study could be used by health professionals to justify the addition of probiotics to standard therapy to further improve NAFLD outcomes.
To investigate the effects of probiotics on liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, and hepatic fatty deposition in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Totally 140 NAFLD cases diagnosed in our hospital from March 2017 to March 2019 were randomly divided into the observation group and control group, 70 cases in each. The control group received the diet and exercise therapy, while the observation group received oral probiotics based on the control group, and the intervention in 2 groups lasted for 3 months. The indexes of liver function, glucose and lipids metabolism, NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups were compared before and after the treatment.Before the treatment, there were no significant differences on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamine transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), NAFLD activity score (NAS), and conditions of fecal flora in 2 groups (P > .05). After the treatment, ALT, AST, GGT, TC, TG, HOMA-IR, NAS, and conditions of fecal flora in the observation group were better than those in the control group, and the observation group was better after treatment than before. All these above differences were statistically significant (P < .05).Probiotics can improve some liver functions, glucose and lipids metabolism, hepatic fatty deposition in patients with NAFLD, which will enhance the therapeutic effects of NAFLD.