The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males--A Randomized Controlled Trial.
PloS one. 2016;11(2):e0148236
Plain language summary
Aging adversely impacts muscular structure and function, and sedentary subjects have an increased risk of developing lifestyle-related disease. Physical activity in aging subjects has repeatedly been shown to counteract these adverse effects, and in particular, the health benefits of recreational soccer have been investigated. The aim of this randomised trial was to examine the long-term effects of soccer training compared to resistance training on a range of musculo-skeletal structural and functional variables. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males aged 63-74 were randomly assigned to participate in either a soccer training group, a resistance training group or inactive control group for 52-weeks. Participants performed a one-hour training session twice per week for the first 16 weeks, and three times a week for the following 36 weeks. This study showed that 52 weeks of regular soccer training lead to decreases in BMI, improved skeletal muscle anti-oxidative potential, and favourably altered glucose control when compared with resistance training in elderly men.
The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035.
Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2012;13(1):210-7
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a recognised health problem with no convincing interventions to date. This randomised trial aimed to examine the efficacy of silymarin plus vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD. 36 patients were randomized to either group Ι or group ΙΙ. Group Ι was treated with 2 tablets of silymarin plus vitamin E per day, hypocaloric diet and exercise. Group ΙΙ was treated only with a hypocaloric diet. Study duration was 3 months for both groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed for all participants by liver biopsy. Patients in group Ι showed significant decrease in anthropometric measurements. Both groups experienced reductions in markers of NAFLD, however in group I, these reductions were independent of weight loss, whereas in group II, those who failed to lose 5% of body weight didn’t show a change in biochemical markers. Authors conclude that intervention with silymarin plus vitamin E, alone or along with other treatments, can help NAFLD patients who fail to lose weight with diet.
In chronic liver diseases caused by oxidative stress (alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, drug- and chemical-induced hepatic toxicity), the antioxidant medicines such as silymarin can have beneficial effect. Liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Insulin resistance and oxidative stress are the major pathogenetic mechanisms leading the hepatic cell injury in these patients. The silymarin exerts membrane-stabilizing and antioxidant activity, it promotes hepatocyte regeneration; furthermore it reduces the inflammatory reaction, and inhibits the fibrogenesis in the liver. These results have been established by experimental and clinical trials. According to open studies the long-term administration of silymarin significantly increased survival time of patients with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis. Based on the results of studies using methods of molecular biology, silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Furthermore, it exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect, and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein production and mRNA expression due to adhesion molecules. The chemopreventive effect of silymarin on HCC has been established in several studies using in vitro and in vivo methods; it can exert a beneficial effect on the balance of cell survival and apoptosis by interfering cytokines. In addition to this, anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory effect of silymarin on the development of metastases have also been detected. In some neoplastic diseases silymarin can be administered as adjuvant therapy as well.