Dietary Fiber Intake (Supplemental or Dietary Pattern Rich in Fiber) and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.
Plain language summary
Most of the financial burden of diabetes mellitus is related to management of its complications, and chronic kidney disease is the most expensive and debilitating. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fibre (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fibre) on diabetic kidney disease. The study is a systemic review that included seven interventional clinical trials that comprised 161 patients with diabetes with an age range of 20 to 74 years. The mean fibre intake in the intervention was 24 g/day and 16 g/day in the control group. Results indicate that only the vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with beneficial kidney outcomes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were no other dietary patterns that had favourable effects on kidney outcomes. Authors conclude that a vegetarian dietary pattern may have a beneficial effects on renal outcomes.
Fiber intake is associated with better glycemic control being an important nonpharmacologicaltreatment for diabetes (DM). We hypothesize that a dietary fiber intake can bringbenefits to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), improving renal outcomes. This systematic review aimedto evaluate the effect of dietary fiber (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fiber) on DKD. Wesearched six databases to identify clinical trials that reported fiber intake and renal outcomes(albuminuria, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dialysis) in patients with DM.From 1814 studies, 48 papers were fully evaluated. In the end, seven trials (161 patients, aged 58.3years, 49% females) were included. The studies were organized into three categories (vegetarian,Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and fiber supplement), two evaluatedsupplements and five dietary patterns. Vegetarian diet reduced albuminuria in three trials, two inpatients with type 1 DM and one in patients with type 2 DM; and one study demonstrated a change inthe eGFR in type 1 DM. The individual quality of the studies was low/uncertain. A vegetarian dietarypattern may have a beneficial effect on these renal outcomes. However, the individual effect of theintake of fiber on DKD not was possible to be evaluated.
Effects of Some Food Components on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Severity: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive hepatic (liver) fat accumulation. Lifestyle interventions are the only known eﬀective treatment for NAFLD. The aim of this study was to estimate associations between the consumption of some food group components with the grade of severity in NAFLD subjects. The study is a cross-sectional nutritional randomised clinical trial, which enrolled 136 subjects (79 males) with moderate or severe NAFLD. Results showed that some food group components were associated with a lower or a higher risk of developing severe NAFLD, and that, within the same food group, some components with a protective or promoter action are present. Authors conclude that their findings could help to elaborate personalised dietary counselling to treat NAFLD.
undefined: The high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) observed in Western countries is due to the concurrent epidemics of overweight/obesity and associated metabolic complications, both recognized risk factors. A Western dietary pattern has been associated with weight gain and obesity, and more recently with NAFLD. This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis of 136 subjects (79 males) enrolled consecutively in the NUTRIATT (NUTRItion and Ac-TiviTy) study. Study subjects had moderate or severe NAFLD diagnosed by using Fibroscan-CAP. Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain information about food intake. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariable logistic regression model. The mean age was 49.58 (±10.18) with a mean BMI of 33.41 (±4.74). A significant inverse relationship was revealed between winter ice-cream intake and NAFLD severity (O.R. 0.65, 95% C.I. 0.95-0.99); chickpeas intake and NAFLD severity (O.R. 0.57, 95% C.I. 0.34-0.97), and not industrial aged-cheeses type (O.R. 0.85, 95% C.I. 0.74-0.98). A statistically significant positive association also emerged between rabbit meat (O.R. 1.23, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.49), industrial type aged cheeses (O.R. 1.17, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.35), milk-based desserts (no winter ice cream) (O.R. 1.11, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.21), fats (O.R. 1.12, 95% C.I. 1.01-1.25), and NAFLD severity. The fresh foods from non-intensive farming and high legume intake that characterize the Mediterranean diet would seem to be beneficial for patients with NAFLD.
Weight Status and Alcohol Intake Modify the Association between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk.
The Journal of nutrition. 2016;146(3):576-85
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Experimental studies suggest that vitamin D may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer. However, population studies have been inconclusive, and it is possible that any relationship is dependent on other factors such as genetics or lifestyle. The objective of this study was to explore associations between blood vitamin D levels and breast cancer risk, along with 2 potential modifiers: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and alcohol intake. The nested case-control study involved 233 women with breast cancer and 466 healthy controls. Overall, no association was found between vitamin D levels and breast cancer risk. However, a higher blood vitamin D concentration was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with a BMI under 22.4, whereas it was associated with an increased risk for women with a BMI 22.4 or over. A blood vitamin D concentration ≥ 10 ng/mL was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with alcohol intakes ≥ 7.1 g/day, whereas no association was observed for women with alcohol intakes < 7.1g/day. The authors concluded that BMI and alcohol intake modified the association between vitamin D and breast cancer risk. These lifestyle factors could explain the inconclusive results of previous studies.
BACKGROUND Mechanistic hypotheses suggest that vitamin D may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer. However, epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent, suggesting a potential effect modification by individual factors. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to perform exploratory analyses on the prospective associations between the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, polymorphisms of genes encoding for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (also known as gc-globulin or group-specific component, GC), and breast cancer risk, along with 2 potential modifiers: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and alcohol intake. METHODS A nested case-control study was set up in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux Anti-oXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994-2007), involving 233 women with breast cancer and 466 matched controls (mean ± SD age: 49 ± 6 y). The plasma total 25(OH)D concentration and gene polymorphisms were assessed on samples obtained at baseline. Conditional logistic regression models were computed. RESULTS A higher plasma 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with a BMI < the median of 22.4 [OR quartile (Q)4 compared with Q1: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.89; P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.002], whereas it was associated with an increased risk for women with a BMI ≥ the median (OR Q4 compared with Q1: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.28; P-trend = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.002). A plasma 25(OH)D concentration ≥ 10 ng/mL was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with alcohol intakes ≥ the median of 7.1 g/d (OR ≥10 compared with <10 ng/mL: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.95; P = 0.03, P-interaction = 0.03). The genetic analyses were consistent with the results observed with plasma 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION In this prospective study, BMI and alcohol intake modified the association between vitamin D [plasma 25(OH)D and vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms] and breast cancer risk. These effect modifications suggest explanations for discrepancies in results of previous studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2012;13(1):210-7
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a recognised health problem with no convincing interventions to date. This randomised trial aimed to examine the efficacy of silymarin plus vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD. 36 patients were randomized to either group Ι or group ΙΙ. Group Ι was treated with 2 tablets of silymarin plus vitamin E per day, hypocaloric diet and exercise. Group ΙΙ was treated only with a hypocaloric diet. Study duration was 3 months for both groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed for all participants by liver biopsy. Patients in group Ι showed significant decrease in anthropometric measurements. Both groups experienced reductions in markers of NAFLD, however in group I, these reductions were independent of weight loss, whereas in group II, those who failed to lose 5% of body weight didn’t show a change in biochemical markers. Authors conclude that intervention with silymarin plus vitamin E, alone or along with other treatments, can help NAFLD patients who fail to lose weight with diet.
In chronic liver diseases caused by oxidative stress (alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, drug- and chemical-induced hepatic toxicity), the antioxidant medicines such as silymarin can have beneficial effect. Liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Insulin resistance and oxidative stress are the major pathogenetic mechanisms leading the hepatic cell injury in these patients. The silymarin exerts membrane-stabilizing and antioxidant activity, it promotes hepatocyte regeneration; furthermore it reduces the inflammatory reaction, and inhibits the fibrogenesis in the liver. These results have been established by experimental and clinical trials. According to open studies the long-term administration of silymarin significantly increased survival time of patients with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis. Based on the results of studies using methods of molecular biology, silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Furthermore, it exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect, and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein production and mRNA expression due to adhesion molecules. The chemopreventive effect of silymarin on HCC has been established in several studies using in vitro and in vivo methods; it can exert a beneficial effect on the balance of cell survival and apoptosis by interfering cytokines. In addition to this, anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory effect of silymarin on the development of metastases have also been detected. In some neoplastic diseases silymarin can be administered as adjuvant therapy as well.
Partial purification and characterization of extrinsic pathway inhibitor (the factor Xa-dependent plasma inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor).
Thrombosis research. 1987;48(1):11-22
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Green tea (GT) consumption has been associated with the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and metabolic disease as well as having a positive effect on body weight and composition. However, the polyphenols in GT have been shown to interact with mineral distribution within the body and those minerals have been shown to be deficient in obesity. Studies to measure mineral status in obese subjects supplementing with GT have been inconclusive and this study aimed to measure the serum concentrations of minerals (calcium, copper, iron, zinc, magnesium), body mass index, total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid profile and glucose concentration. 46 obese patients were randomised into 2 groups, one group were supplemented with 279mg of green tea extract (GTE) and 208mg of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and the other group were issued with a placebo for 3 months. The study concluded that GTE improved Zn and Mg, however decreased levels of FE. The results confirmed a positive effect on body mass, lipid profile, glucose and TAS. It was concluded that more studies are required on a larger population over a longer period of time.
We report a procedure to purify partially from plasma (approximately 1200 fold) the factor Xa-dependent inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor (i.e., the extrinsic pathway inhibitor or EPI) and describe some of its properties. An assay for EPI was developed based upon inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor induced release of activation peptide from tritiated factor IX by a test sample in the presence but not in the absence of factor Xa. Approximately 50% of the total EPI activity in plasma was found in the lipoprotein fraction, which was used as the starting material for purification. Total lipoproteins (isolated by density ultracentrifugation) were delipidated and the urea soluble apoproteins gel filtered on Sephacryl S-200. The inhibitory activity co-eluted with the major protein peak, which primarily contained apoprotein A-I. Inhibitory activity was separated from apoprotein A-I by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and was further resolved from higher and lower molecular weight contaminating proteins by polypreparative disc gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% SDS. Functional inhibitory activity eluted from the polypreparative disc gel in two discrete pools of different molecular weights (approximately 34,000 and approximately 43,000 D). Apoprotein E was identified by immunological techniques as the major protein present in both of these pools. However, incubation with a monospecific polyclonal antibody to human apoprotein E did not decrease EPI activity either in plasma or in the partially purified polypreparative disc gel fractions. A rabbit antiserum was prepared against material from the polypreparative disc gel. The IgG fraction neutralized approximately 95% of the total inhibitory activity present in plasma. Therefore, EPI in the lipoprotein fraction and in the non-lipoprotein fraction of plasma appears to be antigenically similar.