Can Reduced Intake Associated with Downsizing a High Energy Dense Meal Item be Offset by Increased Vegetable Variety in 3⁻5-year-old Children?
Plain language summary
Large proportions of energy dense foods tend to lead to over-consumption. However, offering smaller portions of energy-dense foods may lead to compensatory consumption of other foods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing portion sizes of energy-dense foods, whilst increasing the variety of vegetables offered to pre-school children. The study was an experimental design were 51 participants – 3 to 5-year old pre-school children - were offered a lunch meal which was either a standard (100%) or downsized (60%) portion of a high-energy dense food over a period of 8 weeks. The results showed a significant reduction in intake of the high energy dense meal item and total meal intake in pre-school children. Offering a variety of vegetables as low energy dense sides within the meal increased vegetable intake compared to offering a single vegetable. Authors conclude that downsizing the portion of the high energy dense component of a lunch-time meal can be used as an effective strategy to reduce high energy dense food intake without a compensatory change in intake of other foods in pre-school aged children.
undefined: Large portions of energy dense foods promote overconsumption but offering small portions might lead to compensatory intake of other foods. Offering a variety of vegetables could help promote vegetable intake and offset the effect of reducing the portion size (PS) of a high energy dense (HED) food. Therefore, we tested the effect on intake of reducing the PS of a HED unit lunch item while varying the variety of the accompanying low energy dense (LED) vegetables. In a within-subjects design, 43 3⁻5-year-old pre-schoolers were served a lunch meal in their nursery on 8 occasions. Children were served a standard (100%) or downsized (60%) portion of a HED sandwich with a side of LED vegetables offered as a single (carrot, cherry tomato, cucumber) or variety (all 3 types) item. Reducing the PS of a HED sandwich reduced sandwich (g) ( < 0.001) and total meal intake (kcal) consumption ( = 0.001) without an increased intake of other foods in the meal (LED vegetables ( = 0.169); dessert ( = 0.835)). Offering a variety of vegetables, compared with a single vegetable, increased vegetable intake (g) ( = 0.003) across PS conditions. Downsizing and variety were effective strategies individually for altering pre-schoolers' intakes of HED and LED meal items, however, using variety to offset HED downsizing was not supported in the present study.
Association between eating behaviour and diet quality: eating alone vs. eating with others.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):117
Plain language summary
Selecting foods for a day is easily influenced by the social environment and eating together or alone plays a big role in that decision. The study aims to evaluate the association between diet quality of the modern Korean adult population based on the eating behaviour and the socioeconomic factors that influence their diet quality. The study is a cross-sectional study which included 3365 men and 5258 women aged between 19 and 64 years. The study included demographic, socioeconomics, and health behaviour factors as covariates. Results indicate that diet quality is influence by eating behaviour. Authors observed that when Korean adults ate without a companion, their diet quality was significantly lower than those who consistently ate with others. Furthermore, from the higher education to lower education level, the diet quality declined when they eat alone. Authors conclude that many Korean adults are experiencing low diet quality when they eat alone. The study provides evidence to promote interventions to improve diet quality among the public.
BACKGROUND To discover the association between eating alone and diet quality among Korean adults who eat alone measured by the mean adequacy ratio (MAR), METHODS The cross-sectional study in diet quality which was measured by nutrient intakes, indicated as MAR and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI 2013-2015 data. Study population was 8523 Korean adults. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the association between eating behaviour and MAR and further study analysed how socioeconomic factors influence the diet quality of those who eat alone. RESULTS We found that the diet quality of people who eat alone was lower than that of people who eat together in both male (β: - 0.110, p = 0.002) and female participants (β: - 0.069, p = 0.005). Among who eats alone, the socioeconomic factors that negatively influenced MAR with the living arrangement, education level, income levels, and various occupation classifications. CONCLUSIONS People who eat alone have nutrition intake below the recommended amount. This could lead to serious health problems not only to those who are socially disadvantaged but also those who are in a higher social stratum. Policy-makers should develop strategies to enhance diet quality to prevent potential risk factors.
Lifestyle Risk Factors for Serrated Colorectal Polyps: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Plain language summary
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease thought to result from the accumulation of various aberrant mutations in the cells lining the colorectal mucosa. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate modifiable and lifestyle factors and the risk of serrated polyps (a type of growth that stick out from the surface of the colon or rectum) of the colorectum. A search of 3 databases yielded a potential 2446 studies for inclusion, from which 43 remained for systematic review. Results indicate that smoking, alcohol consumption, body fatness, dietary fat and meat consumption increased the risk of developing serrated polyps. Whereas, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and dietary folate decreased this risk. Authors conclude that their findings strengthen public health messages promoting awareness and change in order to reduce the risk of these precancerous lesions and consequently CRC.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Certain subsets of colorectal serrated polyps (SP) have malignant potential. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and risk for SPs. METHODS We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for observational or interventional studies that contained the terms risk or risk factor, and serrated or hyperplastic, and polyps or adenomas, and colorectal (or synonymous terms), published by March 2016. Titles and abstracts of identified articles were independently reviewed by at least 2 reviewers. Adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined using random effects meta-analyses to assess the risk of SP, when possible. RESULTS We identified 43 studies of SP risk associated with 7 different lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol, body fatness, diet, physical activity, medication, and hormone-replacement therapy. When we compared the highest and lowest categories of exposure, factors we found to significantly increase risk for SP included tobacco smoking (RR, 2.47; 95% CI, 2.12-2.87), alcohol intake (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.17-1.52), body mass index (RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.22-1.61), and high intake of fat or meat. Direct associations for smoking and alcohol, but not body fat, tended to be stronger for sessile serrated adenomas/polyps than hyperplastic polyps. In contrast, factors we found to significantly decrease risks for SP included use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92) or aspirin (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99), as well as high intake of folate, calcium, or fiber. No significant associations were detected between SP risk and physical activity or hormone replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS Several lifestyle factors, most notably smoking and alcohol, are associated with SP risk. These findings enhance our understanding of mechanisms of SP development and indicate that risk of serrated pathway colorectal neoplasms could be reduced with lifestyle changes.
Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a summary review of meta-analytical studies.
International journal of epidemiology. 2015;44(1):186-98
Plain language summary
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the four or five most common causes of cancer mortality in developed countries. The aim of this review was to summarize results from pooled analyses and meta-analyses to estimate the fraction of PCs attributable to many different risk factors. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out by searching for meta-analytical studies on the association between specific risk factors and PC risk or multiple cancer sites. Results indicate that PC has a multifactorial aetiology. All identified factors can be combined into a specific aetiological (the philosophy or study of causation) pathway for PC. The main pathways include insulin resistance (central adiposity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome), inflammation (tobacco, alcohol, pancreatitis), DNA damage (tobacco, red meat) and haemostasis (blood group, history of thrombosis). Authors conclude that about two-thirds of the major risk factors associated with PC are potentially modifiable, affording a unique opportunity for preventing one of our deadliest cancers.
BACKGROUND The aetiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has been extensively studied and is the subject of numerous meta-analyses and pooled analyses. We have summarized results from these pooled and meta-analytical studies to estimate the fraction of PCs attributable to each of the identified risk factors. METHODS Using a comprehensive strategy, we retrieved 117 meta-analytical or pooled reports dealing with the association between specific risk factors and PC risk. We combined estimates of relative risk and estimates of exposure to calculate the fraction of PCs caused or prevented by a particular exposure. RESULTS Tobacco smoking ('strong' evidence) and Helicobacter pylori infection ('moderate' evidence) are the major risk factors associated with PC, with respective estimated population attributable fractions of 11-32% and 4-25%. The major protective factors are history of allergy ('strong' evidence) and increasing fruit or folate intake ('moderate' evidence), with respective population preventable fractions of 3-7% and 0-12%. CONCLUSIONS We summarized results of 117 meta-analytical or pooled data reports dealing with 37 aetiological exposures, to obtain robust information about the suspected causes of PC. By combining these estimates with their prevalences in the population, we calculated population attributable or population preventable fractions. About two-thirds of the major risk factors associated with PC are potentially modifiable, affording a unique opportunity for preventing one of our deadliest cancers.