Can Reduced Intake Associated with Downsizing a High Energy Dense Meal Item be Offset by Increased Vegetable Variety in 3⁻5-year-old Children?
Plain language summary
Large proportions of energy dense foods tend to lead to over-consumption. However, offering smaller portions of energy-dense foods may lead to compensatory consumption of other foods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing portion sizes of energy-dense foods, whilst increasing the variety of vegetables offered to pre-school children. The study was an experimental design were 51 participants – 3 to 5-year old pre-school children - were offered a lunch meal which was either a standard (100%) or downsized (60%) portion of a high-energy dense food over a period of 8 weeks. The results showed a significant reduction in intake of the high energy dense meal item and total meal intake in pre-school children. Offering a variety of vegetables as low energy dense sides within the meal increased vegetable intake compared to offering a single vegetable. Authors conclude that downsizing the portion of the high energy dense component of a lunch-time meal can be used as an effective strategy to reduce high energy dense food intake without a compensatory change in intake of other foods in pre-school aged children.
undefined: Large portions of energy dense foods promote overconsumption but offering small portions might lead to compensatory intake of other foods. Offering a variety of vegetables could help promote vegetable intake and offset the effect of reducing the portion size (PS) of a high energy dense (HED) food. Therefore, we tested the effect on intake of reducing the PS of a HED unit lunch item while varying the variety of the accompanying low energy dense (LED) vegetables. In a within-subjects design, 43 3⁻5-year-old pre-schoolers were served a lunch meal in their nursery on 8 occasions. Children were served a standard (100%) or downsized (60%) portion of a HED sandwich with a side of LED vegetables offered as a single (carrot, cherry tomato, cucumber) or variety (all 3 types) item. Reducing the PS of a HED sandwich reduced sandwich (g) ( < 0.001) and total meal intake (kcal) consumption ( = 0.001) without an increased intake of other foods in the meal (LED vegetables ( = 0.169); dessert ( = 0.835)). Offering a variety of vegetables, compared with a single vegetable, increased vegetable intake (g) ( = 0.003) across PS conditions. Downsizing and variety were effective strategies individually for altering pre-schoolers' intakes of HED and LED meal items, however, using variety to offset HED downsizing was not supported in the present study.
Association between eating behaviour and diet quality: eating alone vs. eating with others.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):117
Plain language summary
Selecting foods for a day is easily influenced by the social environment and eating together or alone plays a big role in that decision. The study aims to evaluate the association between diet quality of the modern Korean adult population based on the eating behaviour and the socioeconomic factors that influence their diet quality. The study is a cross-sectional study which included 3365 men and 5258 women aged between 19 and 64 years. The study included demographic, socioeconomics, and health behaviour factors as covariates. Results indicate that diet quality is influence by eating behaviour. Authors observed that when Korean adults ate without a companion, their diet quality was significantly lower than those who consistently ate with others. Furthermore, from the higher education to lower education level, the diet quality declined when they eat alone. Authors conclude that many Korean adults are experiencing low diet quality when they eat alone. The study provides evidence to promote interventions to improve diet quality among the public.
BACKGROUND To discover the association between eating alone and diet quality among Korean adults who eat alone measured by the mean adequacy ratio (MAR), METHODS The cross-sectional study in diet quality which was measured by nutrient intakes, indicated as MAR and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI 2013-2015 data. Study population was 8523 Korean adults. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the association between eating behaviour and MAR and further study analysed how socioeconomic factors influence the diet quality of those who eat alone. RESULTS We found that the diet quality of people who eat alone was lower than that of people who eat together in both male (β: - 0.110, p = 0.002) and female participants (β: - 0.069, p = 0.005). Among who eats alone, the socioeconomic factors that negatively influenced MAR with the living arrangement, education level, income levels, and various occupation classifications. CONCLUSIONS People who eat alone have nutrition intake below the recommended amount. This could lead to serious health problems not only to those who are socially disadvantaged but also those who are in a higher social stratum. Policy-makers should develop strategies to enhance diet quality to prevent potential risk factors.