Usefulness of a Lifestyle Intervention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.
The American journal of cardiology. 2020;125(3):370-375
Plain language summary
Modifiable (behavioural) risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle and low sleep efficiency, are associated with increased mortality risk and disease progression in individuals with cardiovascular disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate changes in objectively measured lifestyle and health data derived from wearable devices. This study was part of an international, multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Do Cardiac Health Advanced New Generation Ecosystem 2 study. Only the participants (n=70) randomised to the intervention group were analysed. The participants received the devices to monitor their lifestyle and health parameters. Results indicate signiﬁcant changes over time in the number of steps and activity level. No signiﬁcant improvement over time was observed in other outcome measures (i.e., blood pressure, weight, and sleep efﬁciency). Secondary analysis showed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) proﬁles that were associated with lifestyle measures. Authors conclude that a personalised approach might be the way forward in order to improve health outcomes in the future.
The importance of modifying lifestyle factors in order to improve prognosis in cardiac patients is well-known. Current study aims to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on changes in lifestyle- and health data derived from wearable devices. Cardiac patients from Spain (n = 34) and The Netherlands (n = 36) were included in the current analysis. Data were collected for 210 days, using the Fitbit activity tracker, Beddit sleep tracker, Moves app (GPS tracker), and the Careportal home monitoring system. Locally Weighted Error Sum of Squares regression assessed trajectories of outcome variables. Linear Mixed Effects regression analysis was used to find relevant predictors of improvement deterioration of outcome measures. Analysis showed that Number of Steps and Activity Level significantly changed over time (F = 58.21, p < 0.001; F = 6.33, p = 0.01). No significant changes were observed on blood pressure, weight, and sleep efficiency. Secondary analysis revealed that being male was associated with higher activity levels (F = 12.53, p < 0.001) and higher number of steps (F = 8.44, p < 0.01). Secondary analysis revealed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) profiles that were associated with lifestyle measures. In conclusion results showed that physical activity increased over time and that certain subgroups of patients were more likely to have a better lifestyle behaviors based on their demographic, clinical, and psychological profile. This advocates a personalized approach in future studies in order to change lifestyle in cardiac patients.
Daily Ingestion of Eggplant Powder Improves Blood Pressure and Psychological State in Stressed Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.
Plain language summary
Prevention and management of hypertension are major public health challenges worldwide. Psychosocial factors are related to blood pressure and may lead to hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term antihypertensive, anti-stress, and psychological state-improving eﬀects of eggplant in human participants with normal-high blood pressure and grade 1 hypertension. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomized into one of two intervention groups; placebo group or eggplant group. The participants ingested four eggplant powder capsules, or four placebo capsules every day for 12 weeks. Results indicate that continuous intake of eggplant powder improved blood pressure in participants with normal-high blood pressure and grade 1 hypertension. Additionally, eggplant intake improved positive and negative psychosocial states. Authors conclude that eggplant should be utilised as a safe treatment for blood pressure and mental health.
undefined: Eggplant ( ) is a globally popular vegetable and its significant health effect has not been reported in randomized controlled trials. Recently, we reported that eggplant was rich in choline esters, including acetylcholine (ACh), and had an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of a continuous intake of eggplant powder on blood pressure (BP), stress, and psychological state (PS) in 100 stressed participants with normal-high BP or grade 1 hypertension in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomly assigned to the eggplant or placebo group. Participants in the eggplant group ingested capsules containing eggplant powder (1.2 g/day; 2.3 mg of ACh/day) for 12 weeks, whereas participants in the placebo group ingested placebo capsules. The primary outcome assessed was hospital BP. Secondary outcomes were stress and PS. Eggplant powder intake significantly decreased the hospital diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at week 8 overall and in the normal-high BP group, and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP at week 12 overall and in the grade 1 hypertension group, compared to those of the placebo group. It also improved negative PSs at week 8 or 12 in the normal-high BP group. This is the first evidence of the BP- and PS-improving effects of eggplant intake in humans. The functional substance responsible for the effects was estimated to be eggplant-derived choline ester, namely ACh.
Impact of Experimentally Induced Cognitive Dietary Restraint on Eating Behavior Traits, Appetite Sensations, and Markers of Stress during Energy Restriction in Overweight/Obese Women.
Journal of obesity. 2018;2018:4259389
Plain language summary
The treatment of obesity has become a public health priority given the negative impact of this condition on physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to compare the eﬀects of energy restriction alone or in combination with induced cognitive dietary restraint (CDR) on eating behaviour traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in overweight and obese premenopausal women. The study is a single-blinded randomised clinical study which recruited premenopausal women aged between 26 and 50 years. The participants were randomised to either an energy-restriction-plus-induced CDR condition (CDR+group) or an energy-restriction-without induced CDR condition (CDR−group). Results indicate that inducing CDR in a context of energy restriction had no further eﬀects on eating behaviour traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in the short term as well as in the longer term than energy restriction alone. Authors conclude that increasing CDR has no negative impact on factors regulating energy balance in the context of energy restriction.
undefined: Weight loss has been associated with changes in eating behaviors and appetite sensations that favor a regain in body weight. Since traditional weight loss approaches emphasize the importance of increasing cognitive dietary restraint (CDR) to achieve negative energy imbalance, it is difficult to untangle the respective contributions of energy restriction and increases in CDR on factors that can eventually lead to body weight regain. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of energy restriction alone or in combination with experimentally induced CDR on eating behavior traits, appetite sensations, and markers of stress in overweight and obese women. We hypothesized that the combination of energy restriction and induced CDR would lead to more prevalent food cravings, increased appetite sensations, and higher cortisol concentrations than when energy restriction is not coupled with induced CDR. A total of 60 premenopausal women (mean BMI: 32.0 kg/m ; mean age: 39.4 y) were provided with a low energy density diet corresponding to 85% of their energy needs during a 4-week fully controlled period. At the same time, women were randomized to either a condition inducing an increase in CDR (CDR+ group) or a condition in which CDR was not induced (CRD- group). Eating behavior traits (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Food Craving Questionnaire), appetite sensations (after standardized breakfast), and markers of stress (Perceived Stress Scale; postawakening salivary cortisol) were measured before ( = 0 week) and after ( = 4 weeks) the 4-week energy restriction, as well as 3 months later. There was an increase in CDR in the CDR+ group while no such change was observed in the CDR- group ( =0.0037). No between-group differences were observed for disinhibition, hunger, cravings, appetite sensations, perceived stress, and cortisol concentrations. These results suggest that a slight increase in CDR has no negative impact on factors regulating energy balance in the context of energy restriction.