Assessment of sleep and obesity in adults and children: Observational study.
Plain language summary
Sleep is essential to support the functions and health of the entire body. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and quality, and overweight risk and obesity in children and adults. The study was conducted on secondary school children. It involved 199 subjects of which 71 were adults (29 males and 42 females) with age between 29 and 65 years, and 128 children (73 males and 55 females) with age between 10 and 13 years. Results indicate that the duration and quality of sleep can represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity in examined subjects (both adults and children irrespective of their gender). Authors conclude that sufficient sleep is required to maintain a normal weight.
The sleep allows many psychological processes, such as immune system activity, body metabolism and hormonal balance, emotional and mental health, learning, mnemonic processes. The lack of sleep could undermine mental and physical purposes, causing an alteration in cognitive functions or metabolic disorders. In our study, we have examined the irregular sleep effects with the overweight and obesity risk in children and adults.The sample was composed of 199 subjects, of which 71 adults, (29 males and 42 females), and 128 children (73 males and 55 females). We have measured the weight and height with standard techniques; we also have measured the body mass index dividing the weight in kg with the height square expressed in meters (kg/m). Subjects were divided into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Were administered some questionnaires to measure the quantity and quality of sleep, and eating habits and individual consumption of food.Analysis of demographic variables not showed significant differences between male and female groups but highlighted a significant trend differences in normal-weight score. The clinical condition has a substantial impact on body mass index score and sleep hours were significant predictor on this.Quantity and quality sleep can also represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity, so sufficient sleep is a factor that influence a normal weight. Adults and children that sleep less, have an increase in obesity and overweight risk with dysfunctional eating behaviors, decreased physical activity, and metabolic changes.
Association between sleep duration and musculoskeletal pain: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2015.
Plain language summary
Musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent in old age and can be disabling to sufferers, resulting in significant economic burden and a detrimental impact on quality of life. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and musculoskeletal pain in Korean adult population. The study showed that extreme sleep duration is prevalent in musculoskeletal pain subjects and it is more prevalent in subjects with multi-site joint pain. Thus, both longer and shorter sleep durations were linked with a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Authors conclude that specific assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance should be included as an important part of pain management in patients with musculoskeletal pain.
Both extremely long and short sleep durations have been associated with increased risk of numerous health problems. This study examined the association between self-reported sleep duration and reporting of musculoskeletal pain in the adult Korean population.This study included data from 17,108 adults aged ≥50 years, obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 and 2013-2015. Self-reported daily hours slept and the presence of musculoskeletal pain in knee joint, hip joint, or low back were examined. Patients were stratified into 5 groups by their sleep duration: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, or ≥9 h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for covariates including age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, family income level, education, physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), and stress level.A U-shaped relationship was observed between the length of sleep duration and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. After adjusting for covariates, sleep duration of ≤5 h or ≥9 h was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain experienced for more than 30 days over a 3-month period. We also found that the presence of multi-site musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher among those who slept for ≤5 h or ≥9 h than in those who slept for 7 h.These findings suggest that either short or long sleep duration is associated with musculoskeletal pain among Korean adults.
Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals.
International journal of obesity (2005). 2014;38(3):411-6
Plain language summary
Sleep patterns influence eating behaviour and the body’s response to food. Previous studies suggest that short sleep duration leads to increased caloric intake and a desire for high-fat foods, however the specific neural mechanisms explaining how sleep restriction modulates this response is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether a specific area of the brain is activated in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. 25 participants were included, all of which were normal weight and had normal sleeping patterns. Each participant was tested after five nights of either 4 or 9 hours in bed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The test was performed while the participant was shown healthy and unhealthy food photos in the fasted state. This study found that after a period of restricted sleep compared with habitual sleep, unhealthy foods led to greater activation in brain regions associated with reward compared with healthy foods. This finding provides a model of neuronal mechanisms relating short sleep duration to obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors and warrants further investigation.
CONTEXT Sleep restriction alters responses to food. However, the underlying neural mechanisms for this effect are not well understood. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a neural system that is preferentially activated in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-five normal-weight individuals, who normally slept 7-9 h per night, completed both phases of this randomized controlled study. INTERVENTION Each participant was tested after a period of five nights of either 4 or 9 h in bed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in the fasted state, presenting healthy and unhealthy food stimuli and objects in a block design. Neuronal responses to unhealthy, relative to healthy food stimuli after each sleep period were assessed and compared. RESULTS After a period of restricted sleep, viewing unhealthy foods led to greater activation in the superior and middle temporal gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, left inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and right insula compared with healthy foods. These same stimuli presented after a period of habitual sleep did not produce marked activity patterns specific to unhealthy foods. Further, food intake during restricted sleep increased in association with a relative decrease in brain oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity observed in the right insula. CONCLUSION This inverse relationship between insula activity and food intake and enhanced activation in brain reward and food-sensitive centers in response to unhealthy foods provides a model of neuronal mechanisms relating short sleep duration to obesity.
Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.
International journal of obesity (2005). 2013;37(4):604-11
Plain language summary
As obesity is a multifactorial disease, dietary interventions must take into account a range of physiological and psychological variables. There is emerging evidence linking energy regulation to the circadian clock, emphasizing that the timing of eating may play a role in weight regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of food timing in weight loss effectiveness among 420 overweight or obese participants during a 20-week weight loss treatment. Participants were grouped as either early or late eaters for consuming their main meal, and their energy intake, expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. In this study, those who ate their main meal late lost significantly less weight than early eaters. The findings of this study indicate that timing of food intake relates to long-term weight loss effectiveness in humans. These findings may help in developing therapeutic strategies for weight loss that incorporates the timing of food consumption with the traditional energy balance and macronutrient composition.
BACKGROUND There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. METHODS Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. RESULTS Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; P<0.05). CLOCK rs4580704 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with the timing of the main meal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.