Usefulness of a Lifestyle Intervention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.
The American journal of cardiology. 2020;125(3):370-375
Plain language summary
Modifiable (behavioural) risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle and low sleep efficiency, are associated with increased mortality risk and disease progression in individuals with cardiovascular disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate changes in objectively measured lifestyle and health data derived from wearable devices. This study was part of an international, multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Do Cardiac Health Advanced New Generation Ecosystem 2 study. Only the participants (n=70) randomised to the intervention group were analysed. The participants received the devices to monitor their lifestyle and health parameters. Results indicate signiﬁcant changes over time in the number of steps and activity level. No signiﬁcant improvement over time was observed in other outcome measures (i.e., blood pressure, weight, and sleep efﬁciency). Secondary analysis showed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) proﬁles that were associated with lifestyle measures. Authors conclude that a personalised approach might be the way forward in order to improve health outcomes in the future.
The importance of modifying lifestyle factors in order to improve prognosis in cardiac patients is well-known. Current study aims to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on changes in lifestyle- and health data derived from wearable devices. Cardiac patients from Spain (n = 34) and The Netherlands (n = 36) were included in the current analysis. Data were collected for 210 days, using the Fitbit activity tracker, Beddit sleep tracker, Moves app (GPS tracker), and the Careportal home monitoring system. Locally Weighted Error Sum of Squares regression assessed trajectories of outcome variables. Linear Mixed Effects regression analysis was used to find relevant predictors of improvement deterioration of outcome measures. Analysis showed that Number of Steps and Activity Level significantly changed over time (F = 58.21, p < 0.001; F = 6.33, p = 0.01). No significant changes were observed on blood pressure, weight, and sleep efficiency. Secondary analysis revealed that being male was associated with higher activity levels (F = 12.53, p < 0.001) and higher number of steps (F = 8.44, p < 0.01). Secondary analysis revealed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) profiles that were associated with lifestyle measures. In conclusion results showed that physical activity increased over time and that certain subgroups of patients were more likely to have a better lifestyle behaviors based on their demographic, clinical, and psychological profile. This advocates a personalized approach in future studies in order to change lifestyle in cardiac patients.
Assessment of sleep and obesity in adults and children: Observational study.
Plain language summary
Sleep is essential to support the functions and health of the entire body. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and quality, and overweight risk and obesity in children and adults. The study was conducted on secondary school children. It involved 199 subjects of which 71 were adults (29 males and 42 females) with age between 29 and 65 years, and 128 children (73 males and 55 females) with age between 10 and 13 years. Results indicate that the duration and quality of sleep can represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity in examined subjects (both adults and children irrespective of their gender). Authors conclude that sufficient sleep is required to maintain a normal weight.
The sleep allows many psychological processes, such as immune system activity, body metabolism and hormonal balance, emotional and mental health, learning, mnemonic processes. The lack of sleep could undermine mental and physical purposes, causing an alteration in cognitive functions or metabolic disorders. In our study, we have examined the irregular sleep effects with the overweight and obesity risk in children and adults.The sample was composed of 199 subjects, of which 71 adults, (29 males and 42 females), and 128 children (73 males and 55 females). We have measured the weight and height with standard techniques; we also have measured the body mass index dividing the weight in kg with the height square expressed in meters (kg/m). Subjects were divided into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Were administered some questionnaires to measure the quantity and quality of sleep, and eating habits and individual consumption of food.Analysis of demographic variables not showed significant differences between male and female groups but highlighted a significant trend differences in normal-weight score. The clinical condition has a substantial impact on body mass index score and sleep hours were significant predictor on this.Quantity and quality sleep can also represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity, so sufficient sleep is a factor that influence a normal weight. Adults and children that sleep less, have an increase in obesity and overweight risk with dysfunctional eating behaviors, decreased physical activity, and metabolic changes.