Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners.
Plain language summary
Athletes undergoing high-intensity eﬀorts show increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), both in the context of competitions and during strenuous training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inﬂuence of the daily intake of fermented milk (containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota) on the systemic and upper airway immune/inﬂammatory responses before and after a race in marathon runners who previously reported upper respiratory symptoms (URS) after an exhaustive physical exercise session. The study is a double-blind randomised clinical study which recruited 42 male amateur marathon runners with an average age of 39 years. The participants were randomly separated into two groups: Lactobacillus casei Shirota group (n=20) or the placebo group (n=22). Results indicate that daily ingestion of fermented milk (containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota) was able to control both immunological and inﬂammatory responses in the blood and also in the upper airways mucosal of amateurs´ runners after a marathon. Authors conclude that Lactobacillus casei Shirota is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon, presenting protective effects.
BACKGROUND Although Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. METHODS Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. RESULTS Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. CONCLUSION For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon.
Fasting glucose and body mass index as predictors of activity in breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane: The EverExt study.
Scientific reports. 2017;7(1):10597
Plain language summary
Literature shows that hyperglycaemia is amongst the most common grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events in breast cancer patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose metabolism on treatment outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients. The study is an observational study that recruited 102 postmenopausal women, aged at least 18 years, who were diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and treated with everolimus and exemestane. Results indicate a significant trend towards increasing fasting glucose and decreasing BMI in the overall study population. Furthermore, significant evidence also shows that lower levels of fasting glucose is associated with better outcomes. Authors conclude that their study showed a predictive role of fasting glucose and BMI on treatment outcomes, longer progression free survival and clinical benefit rates (percentage of patients with shrinking tumours or stable disease for at least 6 months).
Evidence on everolimus in breast cancer has placed hyperglycemia among the most common high grade adverse events. Anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose metabolism were investigated in a observational study of 102 postmenopausal, HR + HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane in first and subsequent lines. Best overall response (BR) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) were assessed across subgroups defined upon fasting glucose (FG) and body mass index (BMI). Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Survival predictors were tested in Cox models. Median follow up was 12.4 months (1.0-41.0). The overall cohort showed increasing levels of FG and decreasing BMI (p < 0.001). Lower FG fasting glucose at BR was more commonly associated with C/PR or SD compared with PD (p < 0.001). We also observed a somewhat higher BMI associated with better response (p = 0.052). More patients in the lowest FG category achieved clinical benefit compared to the highest (p < 0.001), while no relevant differences emerged for BMI. Fasting glucose at re-assessment was also predictive of PFS (p = 0.037), as confirmed in models including BMI and line of therapy (p = 0.049). Treatment discontinuation was significantly associated with changes in FG (p = 0.014). Further research is warranted to corroborate these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms.
Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males.
Journal of translational medicine. 2016;14(1):290
Plain language summary
Time-restricted feeding (TRF) allows subjects to consume ad libitum energy intake within a defined window of time, which means a fasting window of 12–21 h per day is employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an isoenergetic TRF protocol on body composition, athletic performance, and metabolic factors during resistance training in healthy resistance trained males. The study enrolled thirty-four resistance-trained males. The participants were randomly assigned to a TRF group (n = 17) or standard diet group (n = 17). Training was standardized for both groups. Results indicate that after 8 weeks, a significant decrease in fat mass was observed in the TRF group, while fat-free mass was maintained in both groups. The same trend was observed for arm and thigh muscle cross-sectional area. Leg press maximal strength increased significantly, but no difference was present between treatments. Authors conclude that TRF can maintain muscle mass, reducing body fat, and reducing inflammation markers and anabolic hormones. This kind of regimen could be adopted by athletes during maintenance phases of training in which the goal is to maintain muscle mass while reducing fat mass.
BACKGROUND Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males. METHODS Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to time-restricted feeding (TRF) or normal diet group (ND). TRF subjects consumed 100 % of their energy needs in an 8-h period of time each day, with their caloric intake divided into three meals consumed at 1 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. The remaining 16 h per 24-h period made up the fasting period. Subjects in the ND group consumed 100 % of their energy needs divided into three meals consumed at 8 a.m., 1 p.m., and 8 p.m. Groups were matched for kilocalories consumed and macronutrient distribution (TRF 2826 ± 412.3 kcal/day, carbohydrates 53.2 ± 1.4 %, fat 24.7 ± 3.1 %, protein 22.1 ± 2.6 %, ND 3007 ± 444.7 kcal/day, carbohydrates 54.7 ± 2.2 %, fat 23.9 ± 3.5 %, protein 21.4 ± 1.8). Subjects were tested before and after 8 weeks of the assigned diet and standardized resistance training program. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscle area of the thigh and arm were measured using an anthropometric system. Total and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Bench press and leg press maximal strength, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory ratio were also tested. RESULTS After 8 weeks, the 2 Way ANOVA (Time * Diet interaction) showed a decrease in fat mass in TRF compared to ND (p = 0.0448), while fat-free mass, muscle area of the arm and thigh, and maximal strength were maintained in both groups. Testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 decreased significantly in TRF, with no changes in ND (p = 0.0476; p = 0.0397). Adiponectin increased (p = 0.0000) in TRF while total leptin decreased (p = 0.0001), although not when adjusted for fat mass. Triiodothyronine decreased in TRF, but no significant changes were detected in thyroid-stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides. Resting energy expenditure was unchanged, but a significant decrease in respiratory ratio was observed in the TRF group. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that an intermittent fasting program in which all calories are consumed in an 8-h window each day, in conjunction with resistance training, could improve some health-related biomarkers, decrease fat mass, and maintain muscle mass in resistance-trained males.
Glycemic load effect on fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in a randomized, controlled feeding study.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2012;66(10):1146-52
Plain language summary
Dietary intervention studies have shown detrimental metabolic effects of high-glycaemic load diets. The glycaemic index (GI) is the numerical classification of a particular food’s blood glucose-raising effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-glycaemic load diet on circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) [hormone] and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [protein] compared to a low-glycaemic load diet. The study is a randomised controlled crossover study which enrolled 84 normal weight and overweight-obese healthy individuals. The study included two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-glycaemic load diets. Results indicate that consumption of a low-glycaemic load diet resulted in lower post-prandial [after a meal] insulin and glucose responses and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 concentrations. However, there were no observable effects of glycaemic load on insulin resistance or glucose-adjusted post-prandial insulin responses in these healthy participants. Authors conclude that further intervention studies are required in order to weigh the impact of dietary glycaemic load on risk for chronic disease.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. In all 80 participants completed the study and 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses. RESULTS The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6 ng/ml, P=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, P=0.01) compared with the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/l/240 min; P<0.01) and 2253±539 (μU/ml/240 min; P<0.01) lower following the low- compared with the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease.
Hormonal and psychobehavioral predictors of weight loss in response to a short-term weight reduction program in obese women.
Physiological research. 2008;57 Suppl 1:S17-27
Plain language summary
Among the many factors that influence weight loss and weight management, metabolic and hormonal parameters have been increasingly explored as important predictors. The aim of this study was to reveal potential psycho-behavioural and hormonal factors as predictors of weight loss. A group of 67 overweight women were enrolled in a 3-week weight management programme in which food intake and physical activity were under strict control. This study indicated that a short-term weight management programme induced favourable changes in anthropometric, psycho-behavioural and hormonal indices. Changes in several hormone concentrations were significantly associated with the reduction of anthropometric parameters, however psycho-behavioural factors did not contribute to weight change in the programme.
Among the factors influencing weight loss and maintenance, psychobehavioral, nutritional, metabolic, hormonal and hereditary predictors play an important role. Psychobehavioral factors influence adherence to lifestyle changes and thus weight loss maintenance. The outcome of short-term weight reduction treatment is mainly affected by changes in energy and nutrient intake and physical activity and thus the impact of hormones can possibly be obscured. In order to reveal hormonal determinants of weight loss, a 4-week in-patient comprehensive weight reduction program was introduced in which food intake and physical activity were under the strict control. Women (n = 67, BMI: 32.4+/-4.4 kg; age: 48.7+/-12.2 years) who exhibited stable weight on a 7 MJ/day diet during the first week of weight management were given a hypocaloric diet yielding daily energy deficit 2.5 MJ over the subsequent 3-week period. This treatment resulted in a mean weight loss of 3.80+/-1.64 kg. Correlation analysis revealed that baseline concentrations of several hormones were significantly associated either with a higher (free triiodothyronine, C-peptide, growth hormone, pancreatic polypeptide) or with a lower (insulin-like growth factor-I, cortisol, adiponectin, neuropeptide Y) reduction of anthropometric parameters in response to weight management. In a backward stepwise regression model age, initial BMI together with baseline levels of growth hormone, peptide YY, neuropetide Y and C-reactive protein predicted 49.8 % of the variability in weight loss. Psychobehavioral factors (items of the Eating Inventory, Beck Depression score) did not contribute to weight change induced by a well-controlled short-term weight reduction program.