Lifestyle factors and visceral adipose tissue: Results from the PREDIMED-PLUS study.
PloS one. 2019;14(1):e0210726
Plain language summary
Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal fat) is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and all cause mortality. Lifestyle factors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with VAT. This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between different levels of physical activity (PA), adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet and sedentary lifestyle with VAT in older people with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were taken from an ongoing randomised study evaluating the effect of a weight loss programme based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, promotion of physical activity and behavioural support compared to usual care consisting of advice on an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet only. Total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and muscle strength were inversely, and sedentary behaviour was positively associated with VAT. There was no statistically significant association between VAT and light exercise, adherence to the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and watching TV.
BACKGROUND Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a strong predictor of cardiometabolic health, and lifestyle factors may have a positive influence on VAT depot. This study aimed to assess the cross-sectional associations between baseline levels of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviours (SB) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with VAT depot in older individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS Baseline data of the PREDIMED-Plus study including a sample of 1,231 Caucasian men and women aged 55-75 years were used. Levels of leisure-time PA (total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous, in METs·min/day) and SB (total and TV-viewing, in h/day) were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using a 17-item energy-restricted MedDiet (erMedDiet) screener. The chair-stand test was used to estimate the muscle strength. VAT depot was assessed with DXA-CoreScan. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and VAT. For the statistics we had used multiadjusted linear regression models. RESULTS Total leisure-time PA (100 METs·min/day: β -24.3g, -36.7;-11.9g), moderate-to-vigorous PA (β -27.8g, 95% CI -40.8;-14.8g), chair-stand test (repeat: β -11.5g, 95% CI -20.1;-2.93g) were inversely associated, and total SB (h/day: β 38.2g, 95% CI 14.7;61.7) positively associated with VAT. Light PA, TV-viewing time and adherence to an erMedDiet were not significantly associated with VAT. CONCLUSIONS In older adults with overweigh/obesity and metabolic syndrome, greater PA, muscle strength, and lower total SB were associated with less VAT depot. In this study, adherence to an erMedDiet was not associated with lower VAT.
A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Plain language summary
There has been a global rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2M) and dietary risk factors are a known contributor. While evidence has shown that an increased intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of disease indicators, there is limited research specifically on the effects of pecans. The aim of this randomised crossover trial was to assess the impact of pecan consumption on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in 26 overweight or obese women. Participants consumed a pecan-rich diet with an iso-caloric control diet of similar fat and fibre content, but absent in nuts, for four weeks with a two-week washout period. This trial demonstrated that displacing a portion of saturated fat in the typical American diet with pecans has a protective effect for CVD and TD2M. Based on these results, the authors recommend using dietary change as a first-line approach to disease prevention and management and suggest further studies be done to better understand potential benefits and associated mechanisms.
undefined: Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet ( < 0.05). Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.
A 12-Month Lifestyle Intervention Program Improves Body Composition and Reduces the Prevalence of Prediabetes in Obese Patients.
Obesity facts. 2018;11(5):393-399
Plain language summary
Obesity and its impact on the prevalence of diabetes and subsequent cardiovascular disease is one of the major health burdens in Western societies. Lifestyle intervention studies have shown that weight loss combined with increased physical activity can improve metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention programme on weight and metabolic risk factors in 5884 obese individuals. The programme included 61 sessions over 12 months, including 41 exercise sessions, 12 psychological/self-management sessions and 8 nutritional counselling sessions (based on a low glycaemic index, low fat diet). After 12 months there was a significant reduction in weight (average 6%), waist circumference, physical fitness and all metabolic parameters (including blood sugar and fat metabolism). Overall, in 839 (38%) of the 2,227 participants who were pre-diabetic before intervention, the criteria of pre-diabetes were no longer detectable after 12 months, whilst only 66 (3%) progressed to type 2 diabetes mellitus. 46.7% of the 1,641 participants fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome before the intervention, did not show any signs of this syndrome after the intervention; whilst only 120 participants (+7.3%) newly developed metabolic syndrome. The authors concluded that the intensive lifestyle intervention programme was successful, even in obese people with pre-diabetes.
BACKGROUND The present study investigated the effects of a 12-month interdisciplinary standardized lifestyle program addressing physical activity and changes in dietary and lifestyle behavior in 2,227 obese prediabetic participants. METHODS Measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference), cardiopulmonary fitness, and metabolic parameters were determined before and after the intervention period. RESULTS From the 2,227 participants who were initially prediabetic, 839 participants (-37.7%) did no longer show the criteria of prediabetes after the intervention and had normal HbA1c levels. CONCLUSION The clinical effects are substantial, and it is likely that the applied intense and multidisciplinary lifestyle interventions could reduce the risk of developing diabetes and the prevalence of a full-blown metabolic syndrome in obese and prediabetic patients.
Glycemic load effect on fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in a randomized, controlled feeding study.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 2012;66(10):1146-52
Plain language summary
Dietary intervention studies have shown detrimental metabolic effects of high-glycaemic load diets. The glycaemic index (GI) is the numerical classification of a particular food’s blood glucose-raising effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-glycaemic load diet on circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) [hormone] and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [protein] compared to a low-glycaemic load diet. The study is a randomised controlled crossover study which enrolled 84 normal weight and overweight-obese healthy individuals. The study included two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-glycaemic load diets. Results indicate that consumption of a low-glycaemic load diet resulted in lower post-prandial [after a meal] insulin and glucose responses and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 concentrations. However, there were no observable effects of glycaemic load on insulin resistance or glucose-adjusted post-prandial insulin responses in these healthy participants. Authors conclude that further intervention studies are required in order to weigh the impact of dietary glycaemic load on risk for chronic disease.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The effect of a low glycemic load (GL) diet on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration is still unknown but may contribute to lower chronic disease risk. We aimed to assess the impact of GL on concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled crossover feeding trial in 84 overweight obese and normal weight healthy individuals using two 28-day weight-maintaining high- and low-GL diets. Measures were fasting and post-prandial concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. In all 80 participants completed the study and 20 participants completed post-prandial testing by consuming a test breakfast at the end of each feeding period. We used paired t-tests for diet component and linear mixed models for biomarker analyses. RESULTS The 28-day low-GL diet led to 4% lower fasting concentrations of IGF-1 (10.6 ng/ml, P=0.04) and a 4% lower ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (0.24, P=0.01) compared with the high-GL diet. The low-GL test breakfast led to 43% and 27% lower mean post-prandial glucose and insulin responses, respectively; mean incremental areas under the curve for glucose and insulin, respectively, were 64.3±21.8 (mmol/l/240 min; P<0.01) and 2253±539 (μU/ml/240 min; P<0.01) lower following the low- compared with the high-GL test meal. There was no effect of GL on mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance or on mean integrated post-prandial concentrations of glucose-adjusted insulin, IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. We did not observe modification of the dietary effect by adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Low-GL diets resulted in 43% and 27% lower post-prandial responses of glucose and insulin, respectively, and modestly lower fasting IGF-1 concentrations. Further intervention studies are needed to weigh the impact of dietary GL on risk for chronic disease.