Effect of yerba mate and green tea on paraoxonase and leptin levels in patients affected by overweight or obesity and dyslipidemia: a randomized clinical trial.
Nutrition journal. 2019;18(1):5
Plain language summary
Yerba mate is a popular tea-like beverage, traditionally consumed in Latin and South America. Yerba mate contains a range of plant compounds that may have beneficial effects on health, such as weight loss and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the intake of yerba mate and green tea on serum levels of leptin, a hormone involved in regulating appetite, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), an enzyme that can destroy harmful oxidised fats in the blood. 142 overweight or obese adults aged 35-60 years, with abnormal levels of fats in the blood and no history of coronary artery disease took part in this controlled, randomised clinical trial. Participants drank 1 litre of either yerba mate, green tea or apple tea daily for eight weeks. Blood PON-1 and leptin levels were measured at the beginning and end of the study. The group drinking yerba mate showed a significant 9.7% increase in blood levels of PON-1, but no difference in leptin levels. The consumption of green tea resulted in no significant differences in the levels of PON-1 or leptin. The increase in PON-1 levels in the yerba mate group was significantly associated with increased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c - often called ‘good’ cholesterol). The authors concluded that drinking yerba mate increased antioxidant capacity by increasing blood levels of PON-1 and was positively associated with increased HDL-c, demonstrating a protective role of this beverage against thickening and hardening of the arteries.
BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the intake of yerba mate (YM) and green tea (GT) on serum levels of leptin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), compared to control. METHODS Controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that evaluated 142 men and women affected by overweight or obesity aged 35-60 years, untreated dyslipidemia and no history of coronary artery disease. Participants were randomized to ingest 1000 mL GT, YM or apple tea (AT, control group) daily, during eight weeks. Serum PON-1 and leptin levels were analyzed by ELISA immunoassay at the beginning (baseline) and after eight weeks of intervention. RESULTS The intake of 1 l of YM/day resulted in significant increase in serum levels of PON-1 (9.7%; p = 0.005). The consumption of GT induced no significant difference in the levels of PON-1 (p = 0.154) and leptin (p = 0.783). Intergroup analysis showed a significant difference (p = 0.036) in the variation of PON-1 levels in the YM group when compared to GT and AT groups. In addition, the increase in PON-1 levels in the YM group was significantly associated with increased HDL-c (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS The intake of yerba mate increased the antioxidant capacity by increasing serum levels of PON-1 and was positively associated with increased HDL-c, stressing the protective role of this beverage against atherosclerotic diseases. GT intake had no significant effect on serum levels of PON-1 and leptin. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under protocol number NCT00933647.
Mixed Nut Consumption May Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults.
Plain language summary
A large portion of heart disease cases are preventable through lifestyle and dietary modifications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of daily intake of 42.5 g of mixed nuts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese adults. This study is an 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial with two isocaloric treatment groups of mixed-nuts and pretzels. A total of 54 participants (22 females and 32 males) were recruited. Results indicate that supplementation of 42.5 g/day of mixed nuts for 8 weeks decreases body weight, insulin, blood glucose, and lactate dehydrogenase [enzyme] levels compared with consumption of an isocaloric amount of pretzels. Additionally, consumption of pretzels increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels while decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Authors conclude that the incorporation of mixed nuts into a usual diet improves some risk factors for CVD.
undefined: Emerging research indicates that nuts are a source of health-promoting compounds demonstrating cardioprotective benefits. However, most studies have assessed the effect of single nuts rather than a nut mixture. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine the effect of mixed-nut consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese adults. In a randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial, 48 participants consumed isocaloric (250 kcal) amounts of pretzels or mixed-nuts. Body weight (BW) ( = 0.024), BMI ( = 0.043), and insulin levels ( = 0.032) were significantly lower in the nut group compared to the pretzel group. Mixed-nut consumption also significantly reduced glucose ( = 0.04) and insulin ( = 0.032) levels after 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase of the nut group was significantly lower than the pretzel group ( = 0.002). No significant differences were detected between groups for triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C. However, pretzel consumption increased triglycerides ( = 0.048) from 4 weeks to 8 weeks. Moreover, LDL-C increased ( = 0.038) while HDL-C transiently decreased ( = 0.044) from baseline to 4 weeks. No significant lipid changes were detected within the nut group. Our results suggest that supplementing the diet with mixed-nuts could improve CVD risk factors by improving BW and glucose regulation in comparison to a common carbohydrate-rich snack without promoting the negative effects on lipids detected with pretzels.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Vegan Diet Versus the American Heart Association-Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease Trial.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018;7(23):e011367
Plain language summary
Inflammation plays a central role in the progression of atherosclerosis and is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a vegan versus American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) [a type of protein found in blood plasma], as well as other markers of inflammation, glucometabolic markers, and lipid profiles in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) on guideline-directed medical therapy. This study is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study design. The active study duration was 8 weeks, with an interim visit at 4 weeks and a final visit at 8 weeks. Results show: - a significantly greater reduction in hsCRP with a vegan versus AHA-recommended diet in patients with established CAD on guideline-directed medical therapy. - that the degree of weight loss, as measured by both body mass index and waist circumference, did not significantly differ between the 2 diet groups. - that markers of glycaemic control and lipid profiles, overall, also did not significantly differ in the vegan diet group when compared with the AHA-recommended diet group. Authors conclude that in patients with CAD and an elevated hsCRP, despite guideline-directed medical therapy, a vegan diet may be considered to further lower the parameters of inflammation.
Background Dietary interventions may play a role in secondary cardiovascular prevention. hsCRP (High-sensitivity C-reactive protein) is a marker of risk for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery disease. Methods and Results The open-label, blinded end-point, EVADE CAD (Effects of a Vegan Versus the American Heart Association-Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease) trial randomized participants (n=100) with coronary artery disease to 8 weeks of a vegan or American Heart Association-recommended diet with provision of groceries, tools to measure dietary intake, and dietary counseling. The primary end point was high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. A linear regression model compared end points after 8 weeks of a vegan versus American Heart Association diet and adjusted for baseline concentration of the end point. Significance levels for the primary and secondary end points were set at 0.05 and 0.0015, respectively. A vegan diet resulted in a significant 32% lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β, 0.68, 95% confidence interval [0.49-0.94]; P=0.02) when compared with the American Heart Association diet. Results were consistent after adjustment for age, race, baseline waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and prior myocardial infarction (adjusted β, 0.67 [0.47-0.94], P=0.02). The degree of reduction in body mass index and waist circumference did not significantly differ between the 2 diet groups (adjusted β, 0.99 [0.97-1.00], P=0.10; and adjusted β, 1.00 [0.98-1.01], P=0.66, respectively). There were also no significant differences in markers of glycemic control between the 2 diet groups. There was a nonsignificant 13% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the vegan diet when compared with the American Heart Association diet (adjusted β, 0.87 [0.78-0.97], P=0.01). There were no significant differences in other lipid parameters. Conclusions In patients with coronary artery disease on guideline-directed medical therapy, a vegan diet may be considered to lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a risk marker of adverse outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02135939.