Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.
CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2017;189(28):E929-E939
Plain language summary
Obesity is a major public health challenge that contributes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence that sugar consumption is fuelling this epidemic has stimulated the increasing popularity of non-nutritive sweeteners including aspartame, sucralose and stevioside. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence of whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners by adults and adolescents is associated with adverse long-term cardiometabolic effects. This study is a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. It includes 37 studies involving a total of 406910 individuals. The study shows that small RCTs with short follow-up (median 6 months) suggest that consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is not consistently associated with decreases in body weight, BMI or waist circumference. However, in larger prospective cohort studies with longer follow-up periods (median 10 years), intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is significantly associated with modest long-term increases in each of these measures. Authors conclude that caution in the use of non-nutritive sweeteners is warranted until the long-term risks and benefits of these products are fully characterised.
BACKGROUND Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included weight, obesity and other cardiometabolic end points. RESULTS From 11 774 citations, we included 7 trials (1003 participants; median follow-up 6 mo) and 30 cohort studies (405 907 participants; median follow-up 10 yr). In the included RCTs, nonnutritive sweeteners had no significant effect on BMI (mean difference -0.37 kg/m ; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.10 to 0.36; 9%; 242 participants). In the included cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with a modest increase in BMI (mean correlation 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; 0%; 21 256 participants). Data from RCTs showed no consistent effects of nonnutritive sweeteners on other measures of body composition and reported no further secondary outcomes. In the cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with increases in weight and waist circumference, and higher incidence of obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Publication bias was indicated for studies with diabetes as an outcome. INTERPRETATION Evidence from RCTs does not clearly support the intended benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners for weight management, and observational data suggest that routine intake of nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with increased BMI and cardiometabolic risk. Further research is needed to fully characterize the long-term risks and benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners. PROSPERO-CRD42015019749.
Effects of weight loss interventions for adults who are obese on mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2017;359:j4849
Plain language summary
Obesity is known to increase the risk of many diseases including cardiovascular disease, various cancers and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, there is evidence suggesting weight loss in obese adults may be harmful, particularly in older people with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of weight loss interventions for adults with obesity on mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer and body weight. Based on the 30,000 participants identified, current evidence shows that weight loss interventions significantly decrease all cause mortality. There was also evidence to suggest weight loss is associated with developing new cardiovascular events, though fewer trials reported these outcomes so uncertainty remains around these results. Based on the current literature and this review, the authors conclude weight-reducing diets may reduce all cause mortality in adults with obesity and support public health measures to prevent weight gain and facilitate weight loss.
undefined: To assess whether weight loss interventions for adults with obesity affect all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and body weight. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using random effects, estimating risk ratios, and mean differences. Heterogeneity investigated using Cochran's Q and I statistics. Quality of evidence assessed by GRADE criteria. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and full texts in our trials' registry for data not evident in databases. Authors were contacted for unpublished data. RCTs of dietary interventions targeting weight loss, with or without exercise advice or programmes, for adults with obesity and follow-up ≥1 year. 54 RCTs with 30 206 participants were identified. All but one trial evaluated low fat, weight reducing diets. For the primary outcome, high quality evidence showed that weight loss interventions decrease all cause mortality (34 trials, 685 events; risk ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.95), with six fewer deaths per 1000 participants (95% confidence interval two to 10). For other primary outcomes moderate quality evidence showed an effect on cardiovascular mortality (eight trials, 134 events; risk ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.31), and very low quality evidence showed an effect on cancer mortality (eight trials, 34 events; risk ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.11). Twenty four trials (15 176 participants) reported high quality evidence on participants developing new cardiovascular events (1043 events; risk ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.04). Nineteen trials (6330 participants) provided very low quality evidence on participants developing new cancers (103 events; risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.36). Weight reducing diets, usually low in fat and saturated fat, with or without exercise advice or programmes, may reduce premature all cause mortality in adults with obesity. PROSPERO CRD42016033217.
Effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of RCTs.
Plain language summary
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Though many clinical studies have explored the effects of probiotics on T2DM they have concluded mixed results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate all current randomised controlled trials and determine the effect of probiotics on lipid profiles and blood pressure in patients with T2DM. According to the existing literature, probiotic supplementation for patients with T2DM has a positive effect by lowering total cholesterol and increasing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). While these beneficial effects on lipid profiles and blood pressure have been found, the authors conclude there is still a need for a multi-centre, longitudinal study to better understand the effects of probiotics on patients with T2DM.
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of probiotics on blood lipid and blood pressure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the randomized controlled studies. METHODS PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database were searched by the index words to identify the qualified randomized control trial. The latest research was done in the January 2017. Mean difference (MD) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to analyze the included outcomes. RESULTS Ten trials were included at last with 297 patients in the treatment group and 294 patients in the control group. Probiotics significantly decreased the value of total cholesterol (SMD -0.57, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.21), triglyceride (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -0.93 to 0.39), low-density lipoprotein (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.01), systolic blood pressure (WMD -5.04, 95% CI -8.8 to 1.20), diastolic blood pressure (SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.62 to 0.17), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (SMD 3.54, 95% CI 1.94-5.15) compared with the placebo treatment. Apart from this, probiotics could significantly improve the value of high-density lipoprotein (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.03-0.73). CONCLUSION Probiotics may decrease the indexes of lipid profile, blood pressure, and FBG in patients with T2DM; application of probiotics might be a new method for lipid profiles and blood pressure management in T2DM.
Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;102(4):922-32
Plain language summary
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of 5 risk factors, including waist circumference, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the fasting condition. These often occur in concert and predispose people to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether current evidence supports the idea that Paleolithic nutrition improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions in people with one or more components of the metabolic syndrome. The study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of 4 randomized controlled trials that compared Paleolithic nutrition with any other dietary intervention in participants with one or more of the 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Results indicate that Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term pooled improvements on each of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome than did currently recommended guideline-based control diets. However, the greater pooled improvements did not reach signiﬁcance for 2 of the 5 components (i.e., HDL cholesterol and fasting blood sugar). Authors conclude that the available data warrant additional evaluations of the health beneﬁts of Paleolithic nutrition.
BACKGROUND Paleolithic nutrition, which has attracted substantial public attention lately because of its putative health benefits, differs radically from dietary patterns currently recommended in guidelines, particularly in terms of its recommendation to exclude grains, dairy, and nutritional products of industry. OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a Paleolithic nutritional pattern improves risk factors for chronic disease more than do other dietary interventions. DESIGN We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Paleolithic nutritional pattern with any other dietary pattern in participants with one or more of the 5 components of metabolic syndrome. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome data were extracted from the first measurement time point (≤6 mo). A random-effects model was used to estimate the average intervention effect. The quality of the evidence was rated with the use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS Four RCTs that involved 159 participants were included. The 4 control diets were based on distinct national nutrition guidelines but were broadly similar. Paleolithic nutrition resulted in greater short-term improvements than did the control diets (random-effects model) for waist circumference (mean difference: -2.38 cm; 95% CI: -4.73, -0.04 cm), triglycerides (-0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.76, -0.04 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure (-3.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: -7.36, 0.08 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (-2.48 mm Hg; 95% CI: -4.98, 0.02 mm Hg), HDL cholesterol (0.12 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.28 mmol/L), and fasting blood sugar (-0.16 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.44, 0.11 mmol/L). The quality of the evidence for each of the 5 metabolic components was moderate. The home-delivery (n = 1) and dietary recommendation (n = 3) RCTs showed similar effects with the exception of greater improvements in triglycerides relative to the control with the home delivery. None of the RCTs evaluated an improvement in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The available data warrant additional evaluations of the health benefits of Paleolithic nutrition. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) as CRD42014015119.