Usefulness of a Lifestyle Intervention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.
The American journal of cardiology. 2020;125(3):370-375
Plain language summary
Modifiable (behavioural) risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle and low sleep efficiency, are associated with increased mortality risk and disease progression in individuals with cardiovascular disease. The main aim of this study was to evaluate changes in objectively measured lifestyle and health data derived from wearable devices. This study was part of an international, multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Do Cardiac Health Advanced New Generation Ecosystem 2 study. Only the participants (n=70) randomised to the intervention group were analysed. The participants received the devices to monitor their lifestyle and health parameters. Results indicate signiﬁcant changes over time in the number of steps and activity level. No signiﬁcant improvement over time was observed in other outcome measures (i.e., blood pressure, weight, and sleep efﬁciency). Secondary analysis showed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) proﬁles that were associated with lifestyle measures. Authors conclude that a personalised approach might be the way forward in order to improve health outcomes in the future.
The importance of modifying lifestyle factors in order to improve prognosis in cardiac patients is well-known. Current study aims to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on changes in lifestyle- and health data derived from wearable devices. Cardiac patients from Spain (n = 34) and The Netherlands (n = 36) were included in the current analysis. Data were collected for 210 days, using the Fitbit activity tracker, Beddit sleep tracker, Moves app (GPS tracker), and the Careportal home monitoring system. Locally Weighted Error Sum of Squares regression assessed trajectories of outcome variables. Linear Mixed Effects regression analysis was used to find relevant predictors of improvement deterioration of outcome measures. Analysis showed that Number of Steps and Activity Level significantly changed over time (F = 58.21, p < 0.001; F = 6.33, p = 0.01). No significant changes were observed on blood pressure, weight, and sleep efficiency. Secondary analysis revealed that being male was associated with higher activity levels (F = 12.53, p < 0.001) and higher number of steps (F = 8.44, p < 0.01). Secondary analysis revealed demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), clinical (co-morbidities, heart failure), and psychological (anxiety, depression) profiles that were associated with lifestyle measures. In conclusion results showed that physical activity increased over time and that certain subgroups of patients were more likely to have a better lifestyle behaviors based on their demographic, clinical, and psychological profile. This advocates a personalized approach in future studies in order to change lifestyle in cardiac patients.
Total and Subtypes of Dietary Fat Intake and Its Association with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk.
Plain language summary
Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are becoming a global epidemic and the role of dietary fats is still unclear. The PREDIMED trial is a large study of 6560 Mediterranean men and women, aged 55–75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS in which they have tracked all types of dietary fat consumed over a 6-year period to assess the risk factors for CVD. Quality of fat is thought to play an important role in MetS. This study used food questionnaires to measure intake of the following fats: total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, a-linolenic acid, and w-3 FA). They were able to divide the participants into groups ranging from highest to lowest fat intake and assess the types of foods and fats being consumed. They found that the group with the highest fat intakes ate less carbohydrates, protein and fibre and had a higher risk of hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose levels). The total fats consumed in this group also included high levels of harmful trans-fatty acids so the researchers concluded that the risk is influenced by the combination of nutrients of the food consumed. They also found that participants who consumed high levels of linoleic acid had significantly higher healthy HDL cholesterol levels and those who consumed high levels of saturated fatty acids and omega 3 had significantly less risk of high triglycerides (another cholesterol marker). Overall they recommend further studies into types of dietary fat to help reduce MetS in the population.
undefined: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants ( = 6560, men and women, 55-75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and ω-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and ω-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3-1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and ω-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and ω-3 FA intake. Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia.