Is waist-to-height ratio the best predictive indicator of hypertension incidence? A cohort study.
BMC public health. 2018;18(1):281
Plain language summary
A variety of methods of measuring body fat are used as tools to predict the risk of developing certain lifestyle-related diseases such as high blood pressure. It is not yet clear which of these methods is the most accurate. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of using different measures of body fat to predict high blood pressure. The study was performed in Brazil. Adult volunteers with normal blood pressure were assessed for body fat using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and then followed-up 13 years later to find out whether they had developed high blood pressure. 44% of the participants developed high blood pressure during the study period. BMI, WC and WHtR were all associated with the risk of high blood pressure and had similar accuracy in predicting the disease. However, the associations were only significant for women. The cut-off points for predicting high blood pressure agreed with current recommendations, except for the WC in men. The results suggest that both overall obesity (BMI) and central obesity (WC and WHtR) indicators can be used in this population to evaluate the risk of developing high blood pressure.
BACKGROUND The best anthropometric indicator to verify the association between obesity and hypertension (HTN) has not been established. We conducted this study to evaluate and compare the discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in relation to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in predicting HTN after 13 years of follow-up. METHODS This study was an observational prospective cohort study performed in the city of Firminópolis, in Brazilian's midwest. The cohort baseline (phase 1) was initiated in 2002 with the evaluation of a representative sample of the normotensive population (≥ 18 years of age). The incidence of HTN was evaluated as the outcome (phase 2). Sociodemographic, dietary and lifestyle variables were used to adjust proportional hazards models and evaluate risk of HTN according to anthropometric indices. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the predictive capacity of these indices. The best HTN predictor cut-offs were obtained based on sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS A total of 471 patients with a mean age of 38.9 ± 12.3 years were included in phase 1. The mean follow-up was 13.2 years, and 207 subjects developed HTN. BMI, WC and WHtR were associated with risk of HTN incidence and had similar power in predicting the disease. However, the associations were only significant for women. The cut-off points with a better HTN predictive capacity were in agreement with current recommendations, except for the WC in men. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that both overall obesity (BMI) and central obesity (WC and WHtR) anthropometric indicators can be used in this population to evaluate the risk of developing hypertension.
Prevalence and determinants of physical activity in a mixed sample of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi medical journal. 2018;39(4):401-411
Plain language summary
Physical activity has been shown to considerably reduce the burden of several non-communicable disorders (are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression), such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and breast and colon cancers. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of physical activity among a mixed group of patients with psychiatric illnesses in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the study sought to evaluate the associations between physical activity, patients with different psychiatric diagnoses and the use of psychotropic medications. The study is a cross-sectional observational study that recruited 1185 patients seeking psychiatric advice, with an average age of 38.0±13.0 years. Results indicate a low prevalence of physical activity in a large, mixed sample of patients with psychiatric illnesses in both inpatient and outpatient settings in Saudi Arabia. Authors conclude that physical activity levels vary according to the type of psychiatric disease and the medications used. They outline that it is important to assess the physical activity status in patients with psychiatric illnesses and promote physical activity programs among psychiatric patients.
OBJECTIVES To estimate prevalence of physical activity and its associations with various psychiatric disorders and the use of psychotropic medications. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between July 2012 and June 2014. Patients were enrolled from a number of hospitals located in 5 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS A total of 1185 patients were included in current analysis: 796 were outpatients, and 389 were inpatients. Out of 1,185 patients, 153 (12.9%) were physically active. Much higher rates of physical activity were reported among males than females (15.9% versus 9.6%, p less than 0.001). According to the univariate analysis, higher rates of physical activity were positively correlated with primary bipolar disorders, the use of antianxiety medications and, to a lesser extent, use of antipsychotic medications, but they were negatively correlated with primary anxiety disorders, use of antidepressant medications, and use of multiple psychotropic medications. The associations between physical activity and primary bipolar disorders (odds ratio [OR]=2.47, p=0.002), use of antianxiety medications (OR=3.58, p=0.003), and use of multiple psychotropic medications (OR=0.33, p less than 0.001) remained significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. CONCLUSION We report a variable but generally low prevalence of physical activity among a large, mixed sample of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia. These findings may highlight the importance of assessing physical activity status of psychiatric patients and the critical need for physical activity promotion programs among this group of disadvantaged patients.
Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative.
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2018;19(1):1
Plain language summary
Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) typically present with greater systemic inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Currently it is unclear whether these factors are associated with early-stage OA, namely bone marrow lesions and swelling. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis in early-stage OA. Using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, 343 participants were enrolled and tested for markers of inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Bone marrow lesions and swelling were also assessed through imaging results. Results indicate that among individuals without OA, those with greater systemic inflammation were more likely to have bone marrow lesions and knee swelling. According to these results, the authors conclude that systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis are related to structural features of osteoarthritis. Future studies should explore whether these factors are predictive of OA in order to identify therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of knee OA.
BACKGROUND Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm ) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm ). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. RESULTS We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m , PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were not significantly associated with the presence of baseline effusion or BML. CONCLUSIONS Among individuals without knee OA, CRP may be related to the presence of BMLs and effusion among normal weight individuals. Abnormal GSP may be associated with effusion. Future studies should explore whether inflammation and glucose homeostasis are predictive of symptomatic knee OA.
Association between sleep duration and musculoskeletal pain: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2015.
Plain language summary
Musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent in old age and can be disabling to sufferers, resulting in significant economic burden and a detrimental impact on quality of life. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and musculoskeletal pain in Korean adult population. The study showed that extreme sleep duration is prevalent in musculoskeletal pain subjects and it is more prevalent in subjects with multi-site joint pain. Thus, both longer and shorter sleep durations were linked with a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Authors conclude that specific assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance should be included as an important part of pain management in patients with musculoskeletal pain.
Both extremely long and short sleep durations have been associated with increased risk of numerous health problems. This study examined the association between self-reported sleep duration and reporting of musculoskeletal pain in the adult Korean population.This study included data from 17,108 adults aged ≥50 years, obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 and 2013-2015. Self-reported daily hours slept and the presence of musculoskeletal pain in knee joint, hip joint, or low back were examined. Patients were stratified into 5 groups by their sleep duration: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, or ≥9 h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for covariates including age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, family income level, education, physical exercise, body mass index (BMI), and stress level.A U-shaped relationship was observed between the length of sleep duration and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. After adjusting for covariates, sleep duration of ≤5 h or ≥9 h was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain experienced for more than 30 days over a 3-month period. We also found that the presence of multi-site musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher among those who slept for ≤5 h or ≥9 h than in those who slept for 7 h.These findings suggest that either short or long sleep duration is associated with musculoskeletal pain among Korean adults.
Binge-eating disorder and the outcome of bariatric surgery in a prospective, observational study: Two-year results.
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2016;24(11):2327-2333
Plain language summary
Binge eating disorder is characterised by the consumption of an objectively large amount of food in a discrete period of time (i.e. 2hrs) with an accompanying loss of control over eating. This study is a follow-up study that examined weight loss over an average of 24 months post bariatric surgery (as most studies are based on a shorter duration i.e. less than 12 months) in 59 patients. Another aim of the study was whether bariatric surgery had any effects on the remission or precipitation of binge eating. Results indicate that patients with a preoperative diagnosis of binge-eating disorder lost significantly less weight 2 years after surgery than those individuals who were free from binge-eating prior surgery. However, those with a diagnosis of binge-eating disorder who received lifestyle modifications lost significantly less than those who had bariatric surgery. Authors conclude that bariatric-surgery may be a useful long-term weight loss strategy for patients with eating disorders. However, they also recommend that these patients may benefit from additional counselling and behavioural support, such as cognitive behaviour therapy.
OBJECTIVE A previous study reported that preoperative binge-eating disorder (BED) did not attenuate weight loss at 12 months after bariatric surgery. This report extends the authors' prior study by examining weight loss at 24 months. METHODS A modified intention-to-treat population was used to compare 24-month changes in weight among 59 participants treated with bariatric surgery, determined preoperatively to be free of a current eating disorder, with changes in 33 surgically treated participants with BED. Changes were also compared with 49 individuals with obesity and BED who sought lifestyle modification for weight loss. Analyses included all available data points and were adjusted for covariates. RESULTS At month 24, surgically treated patients with BED preoperatively lost 18.6% of initial weight, compared with 23.9% for those without BED (P = 0.049). (Mean losses at month 12 had been 21.5% and 24.2%, respectively; P = 0.23.) Participants with BED who received lifestyle modification lost 5.6% at 24 months, significantly less than both groups of surgically treated patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that preoperative BED attenuates long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery. We recommend that patients with this condition, as well as other eating disturbances, receive adjunctive behavioral support, the timing of which remains to be determined.