A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Low- Versus Moderate-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women With HIV.
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 2019;80(3):342-349
Plain language summary
Prevalence of fracture is 2 to 3-fold higher in women with HIV over age 50 than in the general population. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two doses of vitamin D3 repletion (3000 IU Vs 1000 IU) on bone turnover and change in bone mass and microarchitecture in postmenopausal women with HIV. The study is a randomised placebo-controlled study which recruited women with HIV aged between 40 and 70 years. The participants were randomised to 3000 vs 1000 IU vitamin D3 daily together with 500mg calcium carbonate twice daily. Results indicate that moderate dose vitamin D3 (3000 IU) supplementation in minority postmenopausal women with HIV on established antiretroviral therapy (treatment for HIV) did not appear to have a greater impact on bone mineral density or bone turnover than low dose vitamin D3 supplementation (1000 IU). Authors conclude that further studies are required to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is beneficial in this patient population, and if so, what dose provides the maximum benefit in terms of musculoskeletal health in persons aging with HIV.
BACKGROUND Prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture is increased among older people with HIV. We compared the effects of low (1000 IU) vs moderate (3000 IU) vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in African American and Hispanic postmenopausal women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS We performed a 12-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with primary outcomes of change in aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and secondary outcomes of change in vBMD by quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed on 85 randomized subjects (43 low and 42 moderate) for primary DXA outcomes, and complete case analysis was performed for secondary outcomes. RESULTS Mean age was 56 ± 5 years, median CD4 count was 722 cells/mm, and 74% had HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL. Serum 25-OHD was higher in the moderate than low VitD group at 6 months (33.1 ± 10.3 vs 27.8 ± 8.1 ng/mL, P = 0.03) and 12 months, but parathyroid hormone levels remained similar. Percent change in aBMD, vBMD, and bone turnover markers did not differ between low and moderate VitD groups before or after adjustment for baseline aBMD. CONCLUSIONS VitD supplementation at 3000 IU daily increased mean total 25-OHD levels in postmenopausal women with HIV, but we did not find evidence of an effect on BMD beyond those observed with 1000 IU daily. Future studies are necessary to determine whether VitD supplementation is beneficial in this patient population, and if so, what dose is optimal for skeletal health.
Effective nationwide school-based participatory extramural program on adolescent body mass index, health knowledge and behaviors.
BMC pediatrics. 2018;18(1):7
Plain language summary
Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern that affects health status not only during adolescence but also during adulthood. The aim of this study was to test whether the HealthCorps program would improve weight status represented by body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) z-score and obesity class. A secondary aim was to identify knowledge and health behaviour domains that would be increased with the program. The study design was a two parallel arm quasi-experimental pre-post comparison design. A total of 2279 students from 62 schools participated in the HealthCorps program. Results indicate that HealthCorps program participation resulted in BMI z-score improvement among overweight/obese female students. Participation also resulted in increased knowledge in most domains regardless of sex and improved a few behaviour domains. However, it did not improve weight status among male students. Authors conclude that the HealthCorps was effective for BMI z-score improvements among female students in addition to significant positive effects on knowledge and a few behaviors in both sexes.
BACKGROUND Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. METHODS HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience. Participating students received through HealthCorps coordinators weekly or bi-weekly classroom lessons either for a semester or a year in addition to various during- and after-school health-promoting activities and mentorship. Self-reported height and weight were collected along with questionnaires assessing knowledge and behaviors during 2013-2014 academic year among 14 HealthCorps-participating New York City high schools. This quasi experimental two-arm pre-post trial included 611 HealthCorps and 221 comparison arm students for the analytic sample. Sex-specific analyses stratified by weight status were adjusted for age and Hispanic ethnicity with clustering effects of schools and students taken into account. RESULTS HealthCorps female overweight/obese and obese student had a significant decrease in BMI z-scores (post-pre delta BMI z-score = -0.16 (95%CI = (-0.26, -0.05), p = 0.004 for the former; and = -0.23 (-0.44, -0.03), p = 0.028, for the latter) whereas comparison female counterparts did not. The HealthCorps students, but not the comparison students, had a significant increase for all knowledge domains except for the breakfast realm, and reported a greater number of significant behavior changes including fruit and vegetable intake and physical activities. CONCLUSIONS The HealthCorps program was associated with reduced BMI z-score in overweight/obese and obese female adolescents, with enhanced health knowledge and behavior for both sexes. With its wide reach, this may be a promising program to help combat adolescent obesity in schools. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study is registered as a clinical trial at the ClinicalTrials.gov registry with trial number NCT02277496 on September 10, 2014 (Retrospectively registered).
A whole-grain diet reduces peripheral insulin resistance and improves glucose kinetics in obese adults: A randomized-controlled trial.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2018;82:111-117
Plain language summary
Literature shows that dietary whole-grain intake is associated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between a whole-grain diet and insulin resistance and glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial involving fourteen middle-aged, obese adults at risk for diabetes. Randomisation was carried out prior to metabolic testing. Results indicate that whole-grain intake as part of a mixed-meal diet significantly improved post-prandial (after a meal) glucose metabolism in middle-aged obese adults. Furthermore, both whole-grain and refined-grain interventions induced about 3–6% weight and fat loss. Authors conclude that whole-grain intake effectively promotes glycaemic control by improving insulin action.
BACKGROUND Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but the mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38 ± 2 y; BMI, 34.0 ± 1.1 kg/m ). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6- H ]-glucose and [U- C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry. Peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance was assessed as 1/(rate of disposal/insulin), and endogenous glucose rates of appearance (R ) iAUC × insulin iAUC , respectively. Both diets met ADA nutritional guidelines and contained either whole-grain (50 g per 1000 kcal) or equivalent refined-grain. All food was provided for 8 wk. with an 8-10 wk. washout period between diets. RESULTS Post-prandial glucose tolerance, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility (insulin-stimulated - fasting carbohydrate oxidation) improvements were greater after whole-grain compared to the refined-grain diet (P < 0.05). Compared to baseline, body fat (~2 kg) and hepatic R insulin resistance was reduced by both diets, while fasting glucose and exogenous glucose-meal were unchanged after both interventions. Changes in peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic flexibility correlated with improved glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Whole-grains reduced diabetes risk and the mechanisms appear to work through reduced post-prandial blood glucose and peripheral insulin resistance that were statistically linked to enhanced metabolic flexibility.
Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative.
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2018;19(1):1
Plain language summary
Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) typically present with greater systemic inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Currently it is unclear whether these factors are associated with early-stage OA, namely bone marrow lesions and swelling. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis in early-stage OA. Using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, 343 participants were enrolled and tested for markers of inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. Bone marrow lesions and swelling were also assessed through imaging results. Results indicate that among individuals without OA, those with greater systemic inflammation were more likely to have bone marrow lesions and knee swelling. According to these results, the authors conclude that systemic inflammation and glucose homeostasis are related to structural features of osteoarthritis. Future studies should explore whether these factors are predictive of OA in order to identify therapeutic targets to prevent or delay the onset of knee OA.
BACKGROUND Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm ) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm ). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. RESULTS We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m , PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were not significantly associated with the presence of baseline effusion or BML. CONCLUSIONS Among individuals without knee OA, CRP may be related to the presence of BMLs and effusion among normal weight individuals. Abnormal GSP may be associated with effusion. Future studies should explore whether inflammation and glucose homeostasis are predictive of symptomatic knee OA.
A pooled analysis of post-diagnosis lifestyle factors in association with late estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer prognosis.
International journal of cancer. 2016;138(9):2088-97
Plain language summary
Literature shows that women with oestrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) [cells that have a receptor protein that binds the hormone oestrogen] breast cancer have a better prognosis in the first several years after diagnosis but may have higher risk of recurrence in later years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of postdiagnosis lifestyle factors in association with breast cancer prognosis overall with ER+ late breast cancer outcomes among breast cancer survivors. This study is a prospective study based on ‘The After Breast Cancer Pooling Project’ which includes data from several long-term (>10 years), prospective cohorts of breast cancer survivors. This study included breast cancer survivors from the U.S. cohorts only i.e. a pooled analysis of over 6,500 ER+ breast cancer survivors. Results indicate that: • large post-diagnosis weight gain, obesity, and daily alcohol consumption (≥ 1 drink/day) increased the risk of late recurrence (≥5 years after diagnosis); • physical activity reduced the risk of all-cause mortality, but not the risk of late recurrence; and • current and heavy former smoking was associated with increased risk of late recurrence and all-cause mortality. Authors conclude that modifiable lifestyle factors were important predictors of late recurrence and mortality among long-term ER+ breast cancer survivors.
Lifestyle factors have been well studied in relation to breast cancer prognosis overall; however, associations of lifestyle and late outcomes (>5 years after diagnosis) have been much less studied, and no studies have focused on estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer survivors, who may have high risk of late recurrence and mortality. We utilized a large prospective pooling study to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors with late recurrence and all-cause mortality among 6,295 5-year ER+ Stage I-III breast cancer survivors. Pooled and harmonized data were available on clinical factors and lifestyle factors (pre- to post-diagnosis weight change, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)), recreational physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking history), measured on average 2.1 years after diagnosis. Updated information for weight only was available. Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-statistic. Multivariable Cox regression models were stratified by study. Adjusting for clinical factors and potential confounders, ≥ 10% weight gain and obesity (BMI, 30-34.99 and ≥ 35) were associated with increased risk of late recurrence (hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.24 (1.00-1.53), 1.40 (1.05-1.86) and 1.41 (1.02-1.93), respectively). Daily alcohol intake was associated with late recurrence, 1.28 (1.01-1.62). Physical activity was inversely associated with late all-cause mortality (0.81 (0.71-0.93) and 0.71 (0.61-0.82) for 4.9 to <17.4 and ≥ 17.4 metabolic equivalent-hr/week). A U-shaped association was observed for late all-cause mortality and BMI using updated weight (1.42 (1.15-1.74) and 1.40 (1.09-1.81), <21.5 and ≥ 35, respectively). Smoking was associated with increased risk of late outcomes. In this large prospective pooling project, modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with late outcomes among long-term ER+ breast cancer survivors.