The Weight Optimization Revamping Lifestyle using the Dietary Guidelines (WORLD) Study: Sustained Weight Loss Over 12 Months.
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2020;28(7):1235-1244
Plain language summary
Effective long-term weight loss strategies to reduce the risk of death and diseases associated with being obese or overweight are required, as restrictive programmes are difficult to sustain, and weight loss may be heavily influenced by behavioural factors. This randomised control trial of 101 premenopausal women with obesity or overweight aimed to compare a lower-fat and moderate-fat diets, both with nutrition education for 12 months. The results showed that both treatment groups lost weight. Both groups consumed the same amount of fat but increased their diet quality. Diet quality and greater attendance at nutritional education sessions were associated with greater weight loss. Cholesterol was significantly lower in both groups, but blood pressure remained unchanged. Interestingly there were a large number of women who did not complete the trial. It was concluded that irrespective of the amount of fat consumed, nutrition education can help to achieve sustained weight loss, improve diet quality and decrease heart disease risk for at least 12 months. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that recommending fat-based targets for weight loss may be ineffective and the importance of emotional and behavioural support for individuals on a weight loss regime to improve their risk for heart disease.
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare two energy-restricted, nutrient-dense diets at the upper or lower ends of the dietary fat recommendation range (lower fat [20% energy from fat] versus moderate fat [35%]) on weight loss using behavioral theory-based nutrition education. METHODS A total of 101 premenopausal women with overweight or obesity were randomized to an energy-restricted lower-fat or moderate-fat diet for 1 year. Interventions included 28 behavioral theory-based nutrition education sessions plus weekly exercise sessions. RESULTS Both treatment groups experienced weight loss (-5.0 kg for lower fat and -4.3 kg for moderate fat; P < 0.0001), but there was no difference in weight loss or fat intake between groups. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (-3. 4 mg/dL and -3.8 mg/dL; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (1.9 mg/dL; P < 0.05) in both groups at 12 months. Diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, increased significantly at 4 months versus baseline (70.8 [0.9] vs. 77.8 [1.0]) and was maintained through 12 months. Higher Healthy Eating Index scores were associated with greater weight loss at 4 months (r = -0.2; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In the context of a well-resourced, free-living weight-loss intervention, total fat intake did not change; however, theory-based nutrition education underpinned by food-based recommendations resulted in caloric deficits, improvements in diet quality, and weight loss that was sustained for 1 year.
Systematic review of the prospective association of daily step counts with risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and dysglycemia.
The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2020;17(1):78
Plain language summary
The health benefits of physical activity for people of all ages, fitness levels, and sociodemographic backgrounds are well-documented. The main aim of this study was to provide an updated description of the association between daily step counts and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity or mortality, dysglycaemia, and all-cause mortality in adults and the patterns of these associations. This study is a systemic review of 17 studies from 13 different cohorts. Participants’ mean age ranged from 49.7 to 78.9 years with samples comprised of 46.9% female participants on average. Results showed that increasing steps per day is beneficial for health: taking more steps per day was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, and lower risk of CVD morbidity or mortality. These associations appear to hold across age, gender, and weight status. Authors conclude that this additional evidence will help guide meaningful volume targets that can be used for health care, education, and behavioural interventions, and potentially inform the development of public health guidelines for steps and health.
BACKGROUND Daily step counts is an intuitive metric that has demonstrated success in motivating physical activity in adults and may hold potential for future public health physical activity recommendations. This review seeks to clarify the pattern of the associations between daily steps and subsequent all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, and dysglycemia, as well as the number of daily steps needed for health outcomes. METHODS A systematic review was conducted to identify prospective studies assessing daily step count measured by pedometer or accelerometer and their associations with all-cause mortality, CVD morbidity or mortality, and dysglycemia (dysglycemia or diabetes incidence, insulin sensitivity, fasting glucose, HbA1c). The search was performed across the Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases from inception to August 1, 2019. Eligibility criteria included longitudinal design with health outcomes assessed at baseline and subsequent timepoints; defining steps per day as the exposure; reporting all-cause mortality, CVD morbidity or mortality, and/or dysglycemia outcomes; adults ≥18 years old; and non-patient populations. RESULTS Seventeen prospective studies involving over 30,000 adults were identified. Five studies reported on all-cause mortality (follow-up time 4-10 years), four on cardiovascular risk or events (6 months to 6 years), and eight on dysglycemia outcomes (3 months to 5 years). For each 1000 daily step count increase at baseline, risk reductions in all-cause mortality (6-36%) and CVD (5-21%) at follow-up were estimated across a subsample of included studies. There was no evidence of significant interaction by age, sex, health conditions or behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, smoking status, diet) among studies that tested for interactions. Studies examining dysglycemia outcomes report inconsistent findings, partially due to heterogeneity across studies of glycemia-related biomarker outcomes, analytic approaches, and sample characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Evidence from longitudinal data consistently demonstrated that walking an additional 1000 steps per day can help lower the risk of all-cause mortality, and CVD morbidity and mortality in adults, and that health benefits are present below 10,000 steps per day. However, the shape of the dose-response relation is not yet clear. Data are currently lacking to identify a specific minimum threshold of daily step counts needed to obtain overall health benefit.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Vegan Diet Versus the American Heart Association-Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease Trial.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018;7(23):e011367
Plain language summary
Inflammation plays a central role in the progression of atherosclerosis and is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a vegan versus American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) [a type of protein found in blood plasma], as well as other markers of inflammation, glucometabolic markers, and lipid profiles in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) on guideline-directed medical therapy. This study is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study design. The active study duration was 8 weeks, with an interim visit at 4 weeks and a final visit at 8 weeks. Results show: - a significantly greater reduction in hsCRP with a vegan versus AHA-recommended diet in patients with established CAD on guideline-directed medical therapy. - that the degree of weight loss, as measured by both body mass index and waist circumference, did not significantly differ between the 2 diet groups. - that markers of glycaemic control and lipid profiles, overall, also did not significantly differ in the vegan diet group when compared with the AHA-recommended diet group. Authors conclude that in patients with CAD and an elevated hsCRP, despite guideline-directed medical therapy, a vegan diet may be considered to further lower the parameters of inflammation.
Background Dietary interventions may play a role in secondary cardiovascular prevention. hsCRP (High-sensitivity C-reactive protein) is a marker of risk for major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery disease. Methods and Results The open-label, blinded end-point, EVADE CAD (Effects of a Vegan Versus the American Heart Association-Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease) trial randomized participants (n=100) with coronary artery disease to 8 weeks of a vegan or American Heart Association-recommended diet with provision of groceries, tools to measure dietary intake, and dietary counseling. The primary end point was high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. A linear regression model compared end points after 8 weeks of a vegan versus American Heart Association diet and adjusted for baseline concentration of the end point. Significance levels for the primary and secondary end points were set at 0.05 and 0.0015, respectively. A vegan diet resulted in a significant 32% lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β, 0.68, 95% confidence interval [0.49-0.94]; P=0.02) when compared with the American Heart Association diet. Results were consistent after adjustment for age, race, baseline waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and prior myocardial infarction (adjusted β, 0.67 [0.47-0.94], P=0.02). The degree of reduction in body mass index and waist circumference did not significantly differ between the 2 diet groups (adjusted β, 0.99 [0.97-1.00], P=0.10; and adjusted β, 1.00 [0.98-1.01], P=0.66, respectively). There were also no significant differences in markers of glycemic control between the 2 diet groups. There was a nonsignificant 13% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the vegan diet when compared with the American Heart Association diet (adjusted β, 0.87 [0.78-0.97], P=0.01). There were no significant differences in other lipid parameters. Conclusions In patients with coronary artery disease on guideline-directed medical therapy, a vegan diet may be considered to lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a risk marker of adverse outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02135939.