Dietary Fiber Intake (Supplemental or Dietary Pattern Rich in Fiber) and Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.
Plain language summary
Most of the financial burden of diabetes mellitus is related to management of its complications, and chronic kidney disease is the most expensive and debilitating. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fibre (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fibre) on diabetic kidney disease. The study is a systemic review that included seven interventional clinical trials that comprised 161 patients with diabetes with an age range of 20 to 74 years. The mean fibre intake in the intervention was 24 g/day and 16 g/day in the control group. Results indicate that only the vegetarian dietary pattern was associated with beneficial kidney outcomes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were no other dietary patterns that had favourable effects on kidney outcomes. Authors conclude that a vegetarian dietary pattern may have a beneficial effects on renal outcomes.
Fiber intake is associated with better glycemic control being an important nonpharmacologicaltreatment for diabetes (DM). We hypothesize that a dietary fiber intake can bringbenefits to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), improving renal outcomes. This systematic review aimedto evaluate the effect of dietary fiber (supplemental or dietary pattern rich in fiber) on DKD. Wesearched six databases to identify clinical trials that reported fiber intake and renal outcomes(albuminuria, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dialysis) in patients with DM.From 1814 studies, 48 papers were fully evaluated. In the end, seven trials (161 patients, aged 58.3years, 49% females) were included. The studies were organized into three categories (vegetarian,Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and fiber supplement), two evaluatedsupplements and five dietary patterns. Vegetarian diet reduced albuminuria in three trials, two inpatients with type 1 DM and one in patients with type 2 DM; and one study demonstrated a change inthe eGFR in type 1 DM. The individual quality of the studies was low/uncertain. A vegetarian dietarypattern may have a beneficial effect on these renal outcomes. However, the individual effect of theintake of fiber on DKD not was possible to be evaluated.
Effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting in the management of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Archives of endocrinology and metabolism. 2018;62(3):337-345
Plain language summary
Glycaemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus is important because it impacts the development of diabetic complications. Carbohydrate counting is a meal planning tool that allows for great variation and flexibility in food choices among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a systematic literature review. The study included randomised controlled trials with at least 3 months of follow-up, and evaluation of outcomes in which patients were randomly divided into two groups. The meta-analysis showed that the final haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - a test that shows the average blood glucose levels for the last two to three months - was significantly lower in the carbohydrate counting group than in the control group. Authors conclude that the meta-analysis showed evidence favouring the use of carbohydrate counting in the management of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, this benefit was limited to the final HbA1c.
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting (CHOC) in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of randomized studies that compared CHOC with general dietary advice in adult patients with DM1. The primary outcomes were changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), quality of life, and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. We searched the following electronic databases: Embase, PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS A total of 3,190 articles were identified, and two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts. From the 15 potentially eligible studies, five were included, and 10 were excluded because of the lack of randomization or different control/intervention groups. Meta-analysis showed that the final HbA1c was significantly lower in the CHOC group than in the control group (mean difference, random, 95% CI: -0.49 (-0.85, -0.13), p = 0.006). The meta-analysis of severe hypoglycemia and quality of life did not show any significant differences between the groups. According to the GRADE, the quality of evidence for severe hypoglycemia, quality of life, and change in HbA1c was low, very low, and moderate, respectively. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis showed evidence favoring the use of CHOC in the management of DM1. However, this benefit was limited to final HbA1c, which was significantly lower in the CHOC than in the control group.
Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2012;13(1):210-7
Plain language summary
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a recognised health problem with no convincing interventions to date. This randomised trial aimed to examine the efficacy of silymarin plus vitamin E in the treatment of NAFLD. 36 patients were randomized to either group Ι or group ΙΙ. Group Ι was treated with 2 tablets of silymarin plus vitamin E per day, hypocaloric diet and exercise. Group ΙΙ was treated only with a hypocaloric diet. Study duration was 3 months for both groups. Diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed for all participants by liver biopsy. Patients in group Ι showed significant decrease in anthropometric measurements. Both groups experienced reductions in markers of NAFLD, however in group I, these reductions were independent of weight loss, whereas in group II, those who failed to lose 5% of body weight didn’t show a change in biochemical markers. Authors conclude that intervention with silymarin plus vitamin E, alone or along with other treatments, can help NAFLD patients who fail to lose weight with diet.
In chronic liver diseases caused by oxidative stress (alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, drug- and chemical-induced hepatic toxicity), the antioxidant medicines such as silymarin can have beneficial effect. Liver cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Insulin resistance and oxidative stress are the major pathogenetic mechanisms leading the hepatic cell injury in these patients. The silymarin exerts membrane-stabilizing and antioxidant activity, it promotes hepatocyte regeneration; furthermore it reduces the inflammatory reaction, and inhibits the fibrogenesis in the liver. These results have been established by experimental and clinical trials. According to open studies the long-term administration of silymarin significantly increased survival time of patients with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis. Based on the results of studies using methods of molecular biology, silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Furthermore, it exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect, and suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein production and mRNA expression due to adhesion molecules. The chemopreventive effect of silymarin on HCC has been established in several studies using in vitro and in vivo methods; it can exert a beneficial effect on the balance of cell survival and apoptosis by interfering cytokines. In addition to this, anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory effect of silymarin on the development of metastases have also been detected. In some neoplastic diseases silymarin can be administered as adjuvant therapy as well.