A Systematic Review on Processed/Ultra-Processed Foods and Arterial Hypertension in Adults and Older People.
Plain language summary
The NOVA system is a way of classifying the level of processing a food has undergone; ranging from un-processed to ultra-processed. Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are nutritionally imbalanced and are often highly calorific. Processed foods (PFs) are the next level down from UPFs and usually have added salt or sugar. Both foods pose a potential health-risk if eaten in excess, with high blood pressure being a potential resulting disease. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the relationship between the consumption of PFs and UPFs and high blood pressure in adults. The results showed that as the consumption of UPFs increased, so did the risk for high blood pressure, however this relationship was not seen with the consumption of PFs. It was concluded that the high consumption of UPFs is associated with a greater risk of developing high blood pressure in adults and older people. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend a diet without UPFs to those who are at risk of high blood pressure or in those who have already been diagnosed.
The increase in the availability of processed and ultra-processed foods has altered the eating patterns of populations, and these foods constitute an exposure factor for the development of arterial hypertension. This systematic review analyzed evidence of the association between consumption of processed/ultra-processed foods and arterial hypertension in adults and older people. Electronic searches for relevant articles were performed in the PUBMED, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The search of the databases led to the retrieval of 2323 articles, eight of which were included in the review. A positive association was found between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and blood pressure/arterial hypertension, whereas insufficient evidence was found for the association between the consumption of processed foods and arterial hypertension. The results reveal the high consumption of ultra-processed foods in developed and middle-income countries, warning of the health risks of such foods, which have a high energy density and are rich in salt, sugar and fat. The findings underscore the urgent need for the adoption of measures that exert a positive impact on the quality of life of populations, especially those at greater risk, such as adults and older people.
Impacts of Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods on the Maternal-Child Health: A Systematic Review.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:821657
Plain language summary
Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are foods of little or no nutritional quality and often contain high amounts of saturated fat, trans fats, salt, additives, preservatives, colourings, and flavourings. These foods have become increasingly present in the diet of individuals who live in lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income countries and may be part of the reason why several non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer, are increasing. These foods may impact health at many stages in an individual’s lifecycle and in those who are pregnant increased consumption of UPFs may negatively affect both mother and child. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the health impacts of UPFs on the health of mother and child. The results showed that higher dietary intake of UPFs was associated with gestational weight gain, early weaning, lower diet quality, alterations to metabolism in the baby and increased weight in the baby. It was concluded that UPF negatively affected nutrition and disease in the mother and child. There was a limited amount of research, however the quality was deemed quite high. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to recommend a high quality nutrient rich diet with limited UPFs during pregnancy.
Conflicts of interest:
A: Meta-analyses, position-stands, randomized-controlled trials (RCTs)
B: Systematic reviews including RCTs of limited number
C: Non-randomized trials, observational studies, narrative reviews
D: Case-reports, evidence-based clinical findings
E: Opinion piece, other
This systematic review aimed to summarise the consumption of Ultra-Processed Food (UPF) in pregnant and lactating women, and infants or children, and identify any associations with relevant health outcomes.
In informing their research question, the authors reference a marked increase in consumption of UPF in recent years, stating that consumption is estimated to count for >50% of energy intake in high-income countries such as the UK. They describe the literature associating UPF with non-communicable disease (NCD) risk, depression, and other morbidities in adulthood, as well as increasing evidence indicating negative associations during key developmental life stages such as the first 1,000 days, childhood, and adolescence.
Methodology followed standard robust systematic review procedures, including an assessment of quality. Of note; percentage of total energy from dietary UPF was defined by NOVA classification*.
From 7,801 hits, 15 studies (eight cohort and seven cross-sectional) were included in the final review; nine conducted in children <10 yr, five in pregnant women and one in lactating women. Fourteen of 15 studies were of high methodological quality.
UPF dietary contribution ranged from 15% to 76% with higher consumption rates reported in English children >1.5 yr, in whom 75% had an excessive free sugar intake. Overall, 12/15 studies found an association between UPF and negative health outcomes.
Pregnancy and lactation: positive associations or trends with: gestational weight gain, indicators of glucose metabolism, feelings of depression/sadness, neonatal adiposity, increased ADHD symptoms and reduced vitamin E status in lactation.
Childhood: positive associations or trends with: weight gain/BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, sugar intake, dental caries, wheezing and respiratory diseases, and urinary biomarkers of plastic compounds (phthalates and bisphenols). Dietary intake revealed increases in dietary energy, saturated fat, carbohydrates, total sugars and vitamin D, and a negative association with protein, polyunsaturated fats, sodium, zinc, vitamin A, folate and fibre.
Authors main conclusion: UPF consumption negatively affects dietary nutritional quality and health outcomes in pregnant and lactating women and their infants, and children. However, literature in this area is limited.
- Robust systematic review methodology.
- Registered protocol on PROSPERO (CRD42021236633).
- Assessment of quality of included studies.
- Subgroup analyses between the highest and lowest UPF consumption groups.
- Limited number of studies included.
- Exclusion of studies that did not assess dietary patterns using the NOVA classification, which may have missed other relevant articles.
- Only includes cross-sectional and cohort studies, which are prone to confounding and bias (Murad et al, 2016).
- Meta-analyses not attempted or not possible.
- No randomized controlled trials (e.g., assessing changes in response to reductions in UPF) included, and unclear from the review if such studies exist.
- Lacking a discussion on possible fortification of UPFs with vitamins and minerals that may be helpful to some population groups e.g., non-meat substitutes fortified with vitamin B12.
Funding: CAPES Foundation (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel in Brazil.
Conflicts of Interest: none declared
*The NOVA classification system was developed by researchers at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and published in 2010. At that time, the term “ultra-processed foods” was a concept (FAO, 2019) that is now considered mainstream. NOVA classifies all foods into four groups according to the nature, extent and purposes of the industrial processes they undergo. The four groups are 1. Unprocessed and minimally processed foods; 2. Processed culinary ingredients; 3. Processed foods; 4. Ultra-processed foods.
FAO 2019. Ultra-processed foods, diet quality, and health using the NOVA classification system. Available at https://www.fao.org/3/ca5644en/ca5644en.pdf, accessed 22.07.2022
Murad MH, Asi N, Alsawas M, et al. New evidence pyramid. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine 2016;21:125-127.
Clinical practice applications:
- UPF are ubiquitous in the food system, though many people may not be aware of the negative implications of their consumption.
- Education about UPF consumption and the risks associated should be provided, alongside recommendations and advice on how to adopt and maintain a more whole-foods dietary pattern. Education should refer to UPF available in the patient/client’s locality and include help with reading and interpreting food labels.
- In the cases of childhood overweight or obesity, ADHD or respiratory disorders, or during peri-conception, pregnancy and lactation, and especially where there is risk of excessive gestational weight gain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, depression or risk of depression, UPF should be limited or avoided.
Considerations for future research:
- Evidence in this area is sparse.
- Robust, high quality clinical trials to assess the response on health outcomes to UPF reduction or avoidance, particularly at critical life stages, are warranted.
- In particular, research during the lactation period is lacking. No study was identified investigating the effect of UPF consumption on production and composition of breastmilk and development of specific nutritional deficiencies in infants.
Background and Aims: Changes in eating patterns have been leading to an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF), negatively impacting the quality of the diet and generating risk of harm to the health of the adult population, however, there is no systematized evidence of the impact of UPF in maternal-child health. Thus, in this study we aimed to evaluated the association between UPF consumption and health outcomes in the maternal-child population. Methods: Systematic review registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42021236633), conducted according to the PRISMA diagram in the following databases: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, and CAPES thesis and dissertation directory. We included original cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies in any language. Eligibility criteria were (a) food consumption assessment by the NOVA classification, (b) health outcome (nutritional or diseases), and (c) maternal-child population (pregnant, lactating women and infants/children). All data were analyzed and extracted to a spreadsheet structured by two independent reviewers. We evaluated the methodological quality of the studies included using the Newcastle-Otawa Scale and RoB 2. Results: Searches retrieved 7,801 studies and 15 contemplated the eligibility criteria. Most studies included were cohort studies (n = 8, 53%), had children as their population (n = 9, 60%) and only one study evaluated UPF consumption in infants and lactating women. Panoramically, we observed that a higher participation of UPF in children's diet has been associated with different maternal-child outcomes, such as increase of weight gain, adiposity measures, overweight, early weaning, lower diet quality, metabolic alterations, diseases, and consumption of plastic originated from packaging. Only one of the studies included did not present high methodological quality. Conclusion: Despite the limited literature on UPF consumption and health outcomes in the maternal-child population, the highest UPF consumption negatively impacted nutrition and disease development indicators in pregnant, lactating women and children. Considering the expressive participation of these foods in the diet, other studies should be conducted to further investigate the impact of UPF consumption on different health indicators, especially in the lactation phase for this was the one to present the most important knowledge gap. Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021236633], identifier [CRD42021236633].
Mycotoxin-Linked Mutations and Cancer Risk: A Global Health Issue.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;19(13)
Plain language summary
Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by fungi, which can be found in common foods like maize, wheat, nuts, and foods containing them. Mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and some Penicillium toxins can alter genetic material. According to previous studies, they can damage genetic material and affect cell growth. Usage of chemicals such as fertilizers and fungicides is a common practice in the agricultural industry to protect plants from fungus and to feed them. However, fungicides can accelerate mycotoxin production. 16 studies were included in this Systematic Review and 11 in Meta-Analysis. This research looked at the harmful effects of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin, T2, zearalenone, and some Penicillium toxins in causing cancers. The researchers evaluated the link between aflatoxin exposure and liver cancer, fumonisin B1 exposure and liver cancer, zearalenone exposure and breast cancer, zearalenone exposure and cervical cancer, citrinine and patulin exposure and colorectal cancer, and NEO, HT-2, and T-2 exposure and Oesophageal cancer. This research did not show significant associations between various mycotoxins and cancer risk. As currently, most studies are primarily focused on aflatoxin; more robust studies are needed to assess the cancer risk associated with different mycotoxin exposure. Using the results of this study, healthcare professionals can gain a better understanding of how mycotoxins affect our bodies.
Humans continue to be constantly exposed to mycotoxins, mainly through oral exposure (dietary), inhalation, or dermal contact. Recently, it has been of increasing interest to investigate mycotoxin-linked carcinogenicity. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence of the association between mycotoxin-linked mutations and the risk of cancer, to provide an overview of the data linking exposure to different mycotoxins with human cancer risk, and to provide an update on current research on the risk of cancer associated with human exposure to mycotoxins. PRISMA guidelines were used when conducting the systematic review. PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL electronic databases were comprehensively searched to extract the relevant studies published from inception to May 2022. A total of sixteen relevant studies (4907 participants) were identified and included in this review. Of these, twelve studies were from Asia, while four of the studies were conducted in Africa. The overall meta-analysis result found no significant association, although some of the studies confirmed an association between mycotoxin-linked mutations and primary liver cancer risk. Mainly, the experimental studies have shown associations between mycotoxin-linked mutations and cancer risk, and there is a need for researchers to confirm these links in epidemiological studies in order to guide public health policies and interventions.
Effects of Different Therapeutic Exercise Modalities on Migraine or Tension-Type Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with a Replicability Analysis.
The journal of pain. 2022;23(7):1099-1122
Plain language summary
For individuals who suffer from headaches and migraines, the first treatment option is usually drug based, which has been associated with side effects, dependency, and abuse of medications. Exercise may be of benefit to individuals with headache and migraine, as it can stimulate the release of chemicals in the brain, which are beneficial to coping with pain. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of exercise in comparison to non-active treatment for pain, frequency of headache episodes, headache duration, quality of life and medication use in individuals with migraine or tension headache. The results showed that both aerobic and strength training were of benefit to the intensity of pain, which resulted in a decrease in medication use. Strength training was marginally better for pain than aerobic exercise, however the research that this was based on was of low quality. It was concluded that exercise could be considered a treatment option for those with migraine and headaches, however the evidence that this was based on was of low quality and so more research is needed before clinical recommendations could be made. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand that there may be some benefit of exercise for the management of pain in individuals who have migraines and headaches.
The primary aim of this study was to review the effect of exercise in comparison with a non-active treatment on pain intensity, frequency of headache episodes, headache duration, quality of life, medication use, and psychological symptoms, in patients with migraine or tension-type headache (TTH). A systematic search was conducted in various electronic databases to identify all relevant studies: Medline (PubMed), PEDro, EBSCO and Google Scholar. Clinical trials assessing the effects of exercise interventions in patients with primary headaches were selected. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and PEDro scale and qualitative analysis was based on classifying the results into levels of evidence according to the GRADE. 19 studies (2776 participants; 85% female) were included. The meta-analysis showed statistically significant differences in pain intensity for aerobic training in patients with migraine (SMD = -0.65; 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.22, very low certainty evidence) and for strength training in patients with TTH (SMD = -0.84; 95% CI = -1.68 to- -0.01, very low certainty evidence). Statistically significant differences were also found in the medication use (SMD = -0.51; 95% CI = -0.85 to -0.17, low certainty evidence). Low transparency, replicability and high risk of bias were found. Aerobic training has a small to moderate clinical effect on pain intensity and medication use on migraine patients, with very low to low certainty of evidence. Strength training showed a moderate clinical effect with very low quality of evidence in patients with TTH. Exercise could be considered as clinically relevant for the management of patients with primary headaches, but the presence of low certainty of evidence and low transparency and replicability limited its clinical application. PERSPECTIVE This article presents current evidence about exercise interventions in patients with primary headaches, including migraine and tension-type headache. Existing findings are reviewed, and relevant data are provided on the effectiveness of each exercise modality, as well as its certainty of evidence and clinical applicability.
Effectiveness of Therapeutic Patient Education Interventions in Obesity and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Plain language summary
Obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. Obesity is also highly comorbid with type 2 DM with a prevalence of 8.5% among adults around the globe. The aims of this study were to present (a) a critical synthesis of the theoretical basis and development of therapeutic patient education (TPE) interventions for obesity and diabetes, and (b) quantitative evidence for the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of fifty-four randomised controlled trials. Results show that: - TPE interventions bring about significant improvements in biomedical outcomes among patients with DM and obesity. - there weren’t significant differences in the quality of life of participants undergoing TPE interventions (inconclusive as only data from two studies were considered). - interventions delivered through different media and delivery formats may be equally effective. Authors conclude that the use of electronic media such as short messaging services, website-based educational programs and animation media can be used to deliver TPE effectively.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis present a critical synthesis of the development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included in the quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in the reporting of these outcomes (I2 = 88.35%, Q = 317.64), with a significant improvement noted in serum HbA1c levels (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.272, 95% CI: 0.118 to 0.525, n = 7360) and body weight (SMD = 0.526, 95% CI: 0.205 to 0.846, n = 1082) in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (p < 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve the health outcomes in patients suffering from obesity and DM.
Long Term Weight Loss Diets and Obesity Indices: Results of a Network Meta-Analysis.
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:821096
Plain language summary
Obesity is associated with a decreased lifetime expectancy of 5–20 years, depending on the severity and the presence of comorbidities. Diet therapy remains one of the cornerstones of the multi-disciplinary approach to weight management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of long-term dietary interventions, categorised using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges, with changes in weight parameters. This study is a systematic review and network meta-analysis of fifty studies. Results indicate that compared with the usual diet, all dietary interventions allow a sustained modest weight loss during the follow-up of 12 months and beyond. Diets did not differ among each other, with the exception of the high-fat low-carbohydrate diet that was slightly better than the low-carbohydrate, low-fat, and moderate macronutrients diet, with a larger weight loss (of 0.8 kg) and body mass index loss (0.4 kg/m2 ). Authors conclude that even though their findings apply to the general population of patients with overweight/obesity, the long-term impact of dietary approaches on patients with chronic diseases should be further investigated.
Background: Scientists have been investigating efficient interventions to prevent and manage obesity. This network meta-analysis (NMA) compared the effect of different diets [moderate macronutrients (MMs), low fat/high carbohydrate (LFHC), high fat/low carbohydrate (HFLC), and usual diet (UD)] on weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) changes at ≥12 months. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, PubMed databases, and the Cochrane Library. We systematically assessed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating dietary interventions on adults (mean BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) receiving active dietary counseling for ≥12 months. We pooled the data using a random-effect NMA. We assessed the quality of the included RCTs using the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool. Results: We included 36 trials, 14 of which compared HFLC with MM diets. Compared with UD, all diets were associated with a significant weight loss (WL) at ≥12 months, HFLC [mean difference in kg (95% CI): -5.5 (-7.6; -3.4)], LFHC [-5.0 (-7.1; -2.9)] and MM [-4.7 (-6.8; -2.7)]. HFLC, compared with MM diet, was associated with a slightly higher WL (of -0.77 kg) and drop in BMI (of -0.36 kg/m2), while no significant difference was detected in other dietary comparisons. WC was lower with all diets compared to UD, with no significant difference across specific diets. There was no significant interaction of the results with the pre-specified sub-groups. The ROB was moderate to high, mostly related to unclear allocation concealment, high dropout rate and unclear or lack of blinding of participants, providers, and outcome assessors. Conclusion: Dietary interventions extending over ≥12 months are superior to UD in inducing weight, BMI and WC loss. HFLC might be associated with a slightly higher WL compared with MM diets. Systematic Trial Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=103116, PROSPERO (CRD42018103116).
Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin and Curcuma longa Extract in the Treatment of Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial.
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;13:891822
Plain language summary
Arthritic disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting one or more joints. Over 100 different forms of arthritis have been identified. Despite their different causes (i.e. degenerative, autoimmune), they share common symptoms such as joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be disabling in many cases. Drug treatment focuses mainly on limiting the progression of the disease, reducing joint inflammation and managing pain. However, these drugs are associated with many side effects. The rhizome of Curcuma longa (CL), also known as turmeric, has longstanding use as an anti-inflammatory in traditional Asian medicines. Research has affirmed its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Evidence from multiple clinical trials suggests that curcumin, one of the active compounds of CL, can reduce the subjective experience of pain in some conditions and can also improve the symptoms and inflammation associated with arthritis. Hence this systematic review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CL-extract in 5 types of arthritis (including Ankylosing Spondylitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and gout). The review included 29 randomized controlled trials involving 2396 participants, with dosages ranging from 120 mg to 1500 mg for a period of 4-36 weeks. Overall, curcumin and CL extract appeared to improve inflammation and pain levels in arthritic subjects whilst demonstrating safety with no increases in adverse effects. CL and its active constituents appeared to favourably change immune and inflammatory responses, as well as serum uric acid levels in the reviewed forms of arthritis. However, due to the small sample numbers in the trials and some lower quality studies, the authors advocate to interpret the results with caution until more solid evidence is available.
Background: Modern pharmacological research found that the chemical components of Curcuma longa L. are mainly curcumin and turmeric volatile oil. Several recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) have shown that curcumin improves symptoms and inflammation in patients with arthritis. Methods: Pubmed, Cochran Library, CNKI, and other databases were searched to collect the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Then, the risk of bias of RCTs were assessed and data of RCTs were extracted. Finally, RevMan 5.3 was utilized for meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine (29) RCTs involving 2396 participants and 5 types of arthritis were included. The arthritis included Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Osteoarthritis (OA), Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and gout/hyperuricemia. Curcumin and Curcuma longa Extract were administered in doses ranging from 120 mg to 1500 mg for a duration of 4-36 weeks. In general, Curcumin and Curcuma longa Extract showed safety in all studies and improved the severity of inflammation and pain levels in these arthritis patients. However, more RCTs are needed in the future to elucidate the effect of Curcumin and Curcuma longa Extract supplementation in patients with arthritis, including RA, OA, AS and JIA. Conclusion: Curcumin and Curcuma longa Extract may improve symptoms and inflammation levels in people with arthritis. However, due to the low quality and small quantity of RCTs, the conclusions need to be interpreted carefully.
Digital Intervention Strategies for Increasing Physical Activity Among Preschoolers: Systematic Review.
Journal of medical Internet research. 2022;24(1):e28230
Plain language summary
Digital strategies to improve the diet and activity of pre-schoolers are increasing due to their accessibility and relatively low cost to set up. This systematic review of 8 studies aimed to determine the quality of the studies that have been performed to date, and to determine the effectiveness of the digital strategies used to increase physical activity. The results showed that the studies reviewed had a small sample size. Only 2 studies showed positive changes in physical activity of pre-schoolers and these approaches were child led, but the studies were low quality. Parent focused interventions did not improve the physical activity of pre-schoolers. It was concluded that digital child-centred activities may be of benefit to physical activity in pre-schoolers, however parent-focused digital interventions may be ineffective. This study could be used by healthcare professionals to understand the importance of using digital strategies which engage children to improve their health.
BACKGROUND Digital interventions are increasingly used to improve health behaviors. Improved access and lower costs (relative to in-person interventions) make such interventions appealing. Specifically, digital platforms may be a promising approach for increasing physical activity (PA) in young children. OBJECTIVE The goal of this systematic review was three-pronged: (1) to determine the quality of studies using digital PA intervention strategies with preschool-aged children (ie, 3 to 5 years old); (2) to assess the efficacy of digital interventions and approaches designed to improve PA in preschool-aged children; and (3) to examine theoretical application and implementation outcomes with current approaches to digital PA interventions. METHODS This review identified and summarized studies on digitally supported interventions for promoting PA in preschool-aged children. We generated 3 lists of relevant search terms that included technology-related terms, PA-related terms, and weight-related terms. The search included Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus. Study selection was led by a single author and verified by a second; the same 2 authors assessed study quality using a standardized tool, and 3 authors completed data extraction on PA outcomes, theory application, and implementation outcomes. RESULTS In total, 601 studies were identified; 8 met the inclusion criteria. For study quality, only 2 studies received an overall rating of strong quality and low risk of bias. All but 1 study had a small sample size (<100). Positive and significant changes in child PA outcomes were reported in only 2 studies with weak overall quality, both of which used child-directed approaches. In total, 5 studies applied a behavioral theory for designing the intervention; no patterns of effectiveness were identified based on the application of theory. Finally, no studies reported on the implementation outcomes of adoption, cost, penetration, or sustainability; 1 study did not assess any implementation outcomes, and no single study reported on more than 2 implementation outcomes. Studies measured the implementation outcome of acceptability most frequently (n=4), and researchers assessed fidelity in 3 studies. CONCLUSIONS The interventions with a significant effect on PA used child-centered activities; parent-directed digital interventions alone were ineffective for improving PA. Future research with rigorous designs, monitoring of implementation outcomes, and testing of the contributions of digital components will advance understanding of the effectiveness of digital interventions for increasing PA in children.
Association of Antenatal Diet and Physical Activity-Based Interventions With Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
JAMA internal medicine. 2022;182(2):106-114
Plain language summary
With an obesogenic environment, unhealthy lifestyle, and accelerating weight gain, obesity is now the most common medical condition in the world. Preconception and pregnancy are priority life stages for healthy lifestyles and obesity prevention with excess weight being associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, long-term noncommunicable disease in women, and epigenetic consequences across generations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of different types of diet and physical activity–based antenatal lifestyle interventions with gestational weight gain (GWG) and maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 studies together with 89 studies identified during a previous study. The included studies were randomised controlled trials (which involved 34 546 women) that examined diet (n = 14), physical activity (n = 53), diet with physical activity (n = 19), and mixed interventions (n = 31). Results show that compared with routine care, antenatal diet and physical activity–based lifestyle interventions were associated with reduced GWG. Lifestyle interventions were also associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes and total adverse maternal outcomes. Authors conclude by supporting the integration of structured diet and physical activity interventions alongside routine antenatal care, and the development of policies to improve the health of mothers and their offspring around the world.
IMPORTANCE Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is common and associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antenatal lifestyle interventions limit GWG; yet benefits of different intervention types and specific maternal and neonatal outcomes are unclear. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of different types of diet and physical activity-based antenatal lifestyle interventions with GWG and maternal and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES A 2-stage systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Health Technology Assessment Database was conducted from February 1, 2017, to May 31, 2020. Search results from the present study were integrated with those from a previous systematic review from 1990 to February 2017. STUDY SELECTION Randomized trials reporting GWG and maternal and neonatal outcomes. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Data were extracted for random-effects meta-analyses to calculate the summary effect estimates and 95% CIs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were clinically prioritized, with mean GWG as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cesarean section, preterm delivery, large or small for gestational age neonates, neonatal intensive care unit admission, or fetal death. RESULTS A total of 117 randomized clinical trials of antenatal lifestyle interventions (involving 34 546 women) were included. Overall lifestyle intervention was associated with reduced GWG (-1.15 kg; 95% CI, -1.40 to -0.91), risk of gestational diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89), and total adverse maternal outcomes (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94) vs routine care. Compared with routine care, diet was associated with less GWG (-2.63 kg; 95% CI, -3.87 to -1.40) than physical activity (-1.04 kg; 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.74) or mixed interventions (eg, unstructured lifestyle support, written information with weight monitoring, or behavioral support alone) (-0.74 kg; 95% CI, -1.06 to -0.43). Diet was associated with reduced risk of gestational diabetes (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.82), preterm delivery (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84), large for gestational age neonate (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08-0.47), neonatal intensive care admission (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48-0.95), and total adverse maternal (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92) and neonatal outcomes (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26-0.72). Physical activity was associated with reduced GWG and reduced risk of gestational diabetes (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.75), hypertensive disorders (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.90), cesarean section (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95), and total adverse maternal outcomes (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.71-0.86). Diet with physical activity was associated with reduced GWG (-1.35 kg; 95% CI, -1.95 to -0.75) and reduced risk of gestational diabetes (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.96) and total adverse maternal outcomes (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95). Mixed interventions were associated with reduced GWG only. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This systematic review and meta-analysis found level 1 evidence that antenatal structured diet and physical activity-based lifestyle interventions were associated with reduced GWG and lower risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The findings support the implementation of such interventions in routine antenatal care and policy around the world.
Prognostic and Therapeutic Role of Vitamin D in COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2022;107(5):1484-1502
Plain language summary
Vitamin D is implicated in optimum function of the immune system. Its deficiency has been linked to susceptibility to respiratory infections. It is postulated that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is also associated with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, its severity, mortality and role of vitamin D in its treatment. This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of seventy-six publications. Results show increased odds of developing COVID-19, progression to severe COVID-19 and death in people with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. In fact, people who developed COVID-19, severe COVID-19 and fatal disease had lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration compared to people without COVID-19 or non-severe COVID-19 or non-fatal COVID-19 respectively. Authors conclude that Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency may increase the risk of developing COVID-19 infection and susceptibility to more severe disease.
PURPOSE Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency may increase the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, its severity, mortality, and role of vitamin D in its treatment. METHODS We searched CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMED, Scopus, and Web of Science up to May 30, 2021, for observational studies on association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and susceptibility to COVID-19, severe disease, and death among adults, and, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vitamin D treatment against standard care or placebo, in improving severity or mortality among adults with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies and AUB-KQ1 Cochrane tool for RCTs. Study-level data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and R (v4.1.0). Heterogeneity was determined by I2 and sources were explored through prespecified sensitivity analyses, subgroup analyses, and meta-regressions. RESULTS Of 1877 search results, 76 studies satisfying eligibility criteria were included. Seventy-two observational studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 1 976 099). Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increased the odds of developing COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.65; P < 0.0001; I2 = 92%), severe disease (OR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.52-2.38; P < 0.0001; I2 = 81%), and death (OR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.28-3.35; P = 0.003; I2 = 73%). The 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were lower in individuals with COVID-19 compared with controls (mean difference [MD] -3.85 ng/mL; 95% CI, -5.44 to -2.26; P ≤ 0.0001), in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with controls with nonsevere COVID-19 (MD -4.84 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.32 to -2.35; P = 0.0001) and in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (MD -4.80 ng/mL; 95% CI, -7.89 to -1.71; P = 0.002). The association between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and death was insignificant when studies with high risk of bias or studies reporting unadjusted effect estimates were excluded. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were high across all analyses. Discrepancies in timing of vitamin D testing, definitions of severe COVID-19, and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency partly explained the heterogeneity. Four RCTs were widely heterogeneous precluding meta-analysis. CONCLUSION Multiple observational studies involving nearly 2 million adults suggest vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency increases susceptibility to COVID-19 and severe COVID-19, although with a high risk of bias and heterogeneity. Association with mortality was less robust. Heterogeneity in RCTs precluded their meta-analysis.