Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults.
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2020;109(6):1088-1095
Plain language summary
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was also previously known as 2019-nCoV. This study is a systematic literature review which summarises the findings on the current knowledge of COVID-19 in children. The review includes 45 scientific papers and letters. Results showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed cases. Children often are asymptomatic, have milder disease than adults, and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent. Authors conclude that the disease course in paediatric COVID-19 was milder than in adults, children had a better prognosis and deaths were extremely rare.
AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognosis in children are rare. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the MEDLINE and Embase databases between January 1 and March 18, 2020. RESULTS The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1%-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children, and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS The coronavirus disease 2019 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.
Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies.
CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2017;189(28):E929-E939
Plain language summary
Obesity is a major public health challenge that contributes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence that sugar consumption is fuelling this epidemic has stimulated the increasing popularity of non-nutritive sweeteners including aspartame, sucralose and stevioside. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence of whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners by adults and adolescents is associated with adverse long-term cardiometabolic effects. This study is a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. It includes 37 studies involving a total of 406910 individuals. The study shows that small RCTs with short follow-up (median 6 months) suggest that consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is not consistently associated with decreases in body weight, BMI or waist circumference. However, in larger prospective cohort studies with longer follow-up periods (median 10 years), intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is significantly associated with modest long-term increases in each of these measures. Authors conclude that caution in the use of non-nutritive sweeteners is warranted until the long-term risks and benefits of these products are fully characterised.
BACKGROUND Nonnutritive sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevioside, are widely consumed, yet their long-term health impact is uncertain. We synthesized evidence from prospective studies to determine whether routine consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with long-term adverse cardiometabolic effects. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2016) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions for nonnutritive sweeteners and prospective cohort studies that reported on consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners among adults and adolescents. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included weight, obesity and other cardiometabolic end points. RESULTS From 11 774 citations, we included 7 trials (1003 participants; median follow-up 6 mo) and 30 cohort studies (405 907 participants; median follow-up 10 yr). In the included RCTs, nonnutritive sweeteners had no significant effect on BMI (mean difference -0.37 kg/m ; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.10 to 0.36; 9%; 242 participants). In the included cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with a modest increase in BMI (mean correlation 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; 0%; 21 256 participants). Data from RCTs showed no consistent effects of nonnutritive sweeteners on other measures of body composition and reported no further secondary outcomes. In the cohort studies, consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners was associated with increases in weight and waist circumference, and higher incidence of obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events. Publication bias was indicated for studies with diabetes as an outcome. INTERPRETATION Evidence from RCTs does not clearly support the intended benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners for weight management, and observational data suggest that routine intake of nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with increased BMI and cardiometabolic risk. Further research is needed to fully characterize the long-term risks and benefits of nonnutritive sweeteners. PROSPERO-CRD42015019749.