Whole-Body Vibration on Performance of Quadriceps After ACL Reconstruction: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of sport rehabilitation. 2019;(1):52-58
CONTEXT Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been widely used in clinical and sport practice. These devices produce constant vibrations, originating symmetrical waves that move along the vertical axis. It is suggested that mechanical stimuli produced by high vibration can be an alternative to improve neuromuscular performance and balance in different populations. However, there is still a lack of consensus in the literature regarding neurophysiological responses in the skeletal muscle immediately after the use of WBV, specifically in individuals subjected to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. OBJECTIVE To investigate the immediate effects of WBV on neuromuscular performance of the quadriceps femoris and postural oscillation of individuals subjected to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. DESIGN This is a blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS Forty-four men. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized into 2 groups: control group (n = 22, exercise protocol on the vibrating platform turned off) and WBV group (n = 22, exercises on the vibrating platform turned on, at a frequency of 50 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The volunteers underwent a dynamometric evaluation of the quadriceps femoris and electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, in addition to oscillation of the center of pressure at 2 different moments: before and immediately after the intervention protocol. RESULTS The intragroup comparison evidenced differences between preassessments and postassessments for the variables of laterolateral amplitude, peak torque, and total work. However, no significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison after WBV protocol. CONCLUSION The use of WBV did not immediately alter the performance of the quadriceps femoris and the electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles. In addition, it also did not interfere with pressure center oscillation of individuals subjected to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
The Effects of Synbiotic Supplementation on Body Mass Index, Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Appetite in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.
Journal of dietary supplements. 2019;(3):294-306
It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. In this triple-blinded clinical trial, 46 Iranian patients with metabolic syndrome, from both sexes, aged 25-70 years, who fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomly categorized to receive either the synbiotic or a placebo capsule, twice a day for three months, plus a weight-loss diet using stratified random sampling based on body mass index (BMI). Each synbiotic capsule consisted of seven strains probiotic bacteria (2× 108) plus fructooligosaccharide as a prebiotic. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were assessed at baseline and at the end of week 12 for fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The mean changes of weight, BMI, FBS, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and GLP-1 between the two groups was statistically significant (p < .001). Furthermore, peptide YY (PYY) increased significantly in the synbiotic group (p ≤ .05). The trend of weight loss in the synbiotic group was significant until the end of the study (p < .001) while it stopped at week 6 in the placebo group. Synbiotic treatment may improve the status of BMI, FBS, insulin resistance, HOMA-IR, GLP-1, and PYY in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor-induced changes in body composition and simultaneous changes in metabolic profile: 52-week prospective LIGHT (Luseogliflozin: the Components of Weight Loss in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) Study.
Journal of diabetes investigation. 2019;(1):108-117
AIMS/INTRODUCTION It is unclear how changes in body composition induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment correlate with metabolic profile changes. We aimed to clarify how metabolic profile changes correlate with body component changes, and if SGLT2 inhibitor treatment causes sarcopenia and bone mineral content (BMC) loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS Moderately obese Japanese type 2 diabetes patients, treated with luseogliflozin for a year, were observed prospectively and evaluated for body composition changes. We analyzed the changes in the individual body components during treatment, and their correlation with other clinical variables. RESULTS The efficacy analysis set comprised 37 of 43 enrolled patients. The total fat mass significantly decreased early in the treatment at and after week 4, with a mean decrease of -1.97 kg (95% confidence interval -2.66 to -1.28) at week 24. The visceral fat area at week 24 showed an average downward trend, although this was not significant. The changes in visceral fat area in individual patients showed a significant negative correlation with the extent of the baseline visceral fat area (r = -0.399, P = 0.023). The skeletal muscle mass index showed a significant but small change at and after week 36. The BMC profile showed a transient significant decrease only at week 12. No significant change in BMC was noted at other time-points. CONCLUSIONS Luseogliflozin treatment brought about favorable changes in body composition and metabolism of moderately obese Japanese type 2 diabetes patients, accompanied by body fat reduction, and minimal muscle and BMC reduction.
Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses: a longitudinal study.
Equine veterinary journal. 2019;(1):45-51
BACKGROUND Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is considered a progressive disease based on histopathology, but it is unknown if tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity worsens over time. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine tracheobronchoscopic EIPH changes over time in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. A secondary aim was to identify factors that affect changes in tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity between observations. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal, observational cross-sectional study. METHODS Thoroughbred racehorses were examined with tracheobronchoscopy no earlier than 30 min after racing. Examinations were recorded and graded blindly by experienced veterinarians using a 0-4 scale. Horses with 2 or more observations were included in the analysis. The association between the previous and current EIPH score was investigated using a linear mixed effect model. Factors associated with transitioning from a lower to a high EIPH grade and vice versa were examined using multiple ordinal regression. A semi-parametric regression model was used to examine progression using the number of career starts as a marker for time. Models were adjusted for potential confounding variables. RESULTS There were 2974 tracheobronchoscopic examinations performed on 747 horses. Blood was detected in over half of all examinations (55.6%). The population prevalence of EIPH increased as the number of examinations for each horse increased. The preceding EIPH score was significantly associated with the current EIPH score. Significant variables associated with moving between EIPH grades were the number of days since last racing, ambient temperature and weight carried. Tracheobronchoscopic EIPH is mildly progressive over the first thirty career starts. MAIN LIMITATIONS Enrolment was voluntary. Horses were not followed for their entire career. CONCLUSION Limiting the number of days in the current racing preparation and spacing races for horses with moderate to severe EIPH may be beneficial for reducing tracheobronchoscopic EIPH severity. The association between ambient temperature and EIPH warrants further investigation.
Short-burst interval treadmill training walking capacity and performance in cerebral palsy: a pilot study.
Developmental neurorehabilitation. 2019;(2):126-133
PURPOSE To examine the effect of short-burst interval locomotor treadmill training (SBLTT) on walking capacity and performance in cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP (average 8.6 years) across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II (8) and III (4) were randomized to 20 SBLTT sessions over 4 or 10 weeks. SBLTT consisted of alternating 30 seconds of slow and fast walking for 30 minutes/session. Outcomes included the 10 m walk test, one-minute walk test (1MWT), and timed-up-and go (TUG) (capacity) and StepWatch (performance) collected at baseline, post, and 6 weeks post. RESULTS Fast speed (+.11, p = .04; +.11 m/s, p = .006), 1MWT (+11.2; +11.7 m, p = .006) and TUG (-1.7; -1.9 seconds, p = .006) improved post SBLTT and 6 weeks, respectively. Walking performance increased: average strides/day (+948; +1712, p < .001) and percent time in high strides rates (+0.4, p = 0.07; +0.2, p = .008). CONCLUSIONS Pilot study suggests SBLTT may improve short-term walking capacity and performance.
Recess environment and curriculum intervention on children's physical activity: IPLAY.
Translational behavioral medicine. 2019;(2):202-216
Understanding the impacts of the built environment on physical activity (PA) is essential to promoting children's PA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of schoolyard renovations and a PA recess curriculum alone and in combination on children's PA. This was a 2 (learning landscape [LL] vs. non-LL) × 2 (curriculum intervention vs. no curriculum intervention) factorial design with random assignment to the curriculum intervention, and six elementary schools per condition. PA outcomes were assessed preprogram, mid-program, immediate postprogram, and one year postprogram. No meaningful intervention effects were found. Lack of an effect may be due to the brief dose of recess, the curriculum not being integrated within the schoolyard, the LL implementation occurring prior to the study, or the already high levels of PA. Potential avenues to promote PA include making recess longer, integrating recess into the school curricula, and developing recess PA curricula integrating schoolyards.
Supplemented amino acids may enhance the walking recovery of elderly subjects after hip fracture surgery.
Aging clinical and experimental research. 2019;(1):157-160
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could enhance rehabilitation therapy (Rehab) for recovery of walking capacity in subjects after hip fracture surgery (HFS). Eighty-three elderly subjects with HFS (20 ± 11 days after acute trauma) were eligible for the study and randomized to receive Rehab only (Rehab; n = 27), Rehab + placebo (RP; n = 28) or Rehab + EAAs (RE 8 g/day; n = 28). The patients' walking capacity (m) was measured by 6-min walking distance (6MWD) at admission and at discharge (median 66 days after admission). All patient groups were treated with the same Rehab (2 sessions/day × 5 days/week). The results showed that the gain in 6MWD was higher in RE than in Rehab and RP (p = 0.034; p = 0.024). The study shows that EAA supplementation can enhance walking recovery rate in subjects with HFS.
Mouth-opening device as a treatment modality in trismus patients with head and neck cancer and oral submucous fibrosis: a prospective study.
Clinical oral investigations. 2019;(1):469-476
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of intervention with an open-mouth exercise device designed to facilitate maximal interincisal opening (MIO) and improve quality of life in patients with head and neck (H&N) cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients with H&N cancer, OSF, and trismus (MIO < 35 mm) participated in the functional rehabilitation program. An open-mouth exercise device intervention group and conventional group, each consisting of 20 patients, underwent a 12-week training and exercising program and follow-up. For the control group, an additional 20 patients were randomly selected to match the demographic characteristics of the aforementioned two groups. RESULTS The patients' MIO improvements in the aforementioned three groups were 14.0, 10.5, and 1.3 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION Results of this study confirm the significant improvement in average mouth-opening range. In addition, according to patient feedback, significant improvements in health-related quality of life and reductions in trismus symptoms occurred in the open-mouth exercise device group. CLINICAL RELEVANCE This newly designed open-mouth exercise device can facilitate trismus patients with H&N cancer and OSF and improve mouth-opening range and quality of life.
Effect of intensive diet and exercise on self-efficacy in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis: The IDEA randomized clinical trial.
Translational behavioral medicine. 2019;(2):227-235
Physical activity decreases the risk of osteoarthritis (OA)-related disability; however, pain and lack of confidence represent barriers for older adults with knee OA. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the baseline associations among self-efficacy and physical activity, function, and pain; (b) longitudinal changes in self-efficacy; and (c) whether self-efficacy mediates treatment effects on clinical outcomes. The Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial was a single-blind, randomized controlled 18-month study including 454 overweight/obese older adults (M age = 66 years) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: exercise (E), diet-induced weight loss (D), or both (D+E). Self-efficacy for gait, balance, and walking duration were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Baseline associations were tested using Pearson correlations, and group least squares means were compared using mixed linear models at follow-up. Participants with higher self-efficacy reported significantly better physical function and less knee pain at baseline, walked farther (6-min walk), and were more physically active (all |r| > 0.12, all p < .01). Significant differences between groups were detected for all self-efficacy measures at 18 months; the D+E group reported significantly (all p < .005) higher self-efficacy for gait, walking duration, and balance compared with the D- or E-only groups. Self-efficacy significantly (p < .05) mediated treatment effects on physical function and pain at 18 months. A combined intervention of diet-induced weight loss and exercise is the treatment of choice to maximize self-efficacy, improve physical function, and reduce pain in overweight/obese adults with knee OA.
Acute effect of different exercise intensities and differences related to age on muscle performance in young and older women.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2019;(4):541-546
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of different exercise intensities on the number of repetitions and total volume and differences related to age on the fatigue index. METHODS Twelve young women (19.0±1.6 years) and ten older women (66.6±5.8 years) performed two experimental sessions for the elbow flexor muscles in a balanced cross-over design. In one experimental session, the participants performed three sets to concentric muscle failure at 100% of 10-12 maximum repetitions (RM). In the other experimental session, the participants performed two sets of 12 repetitions and one final set until concentric muscle failure at 90% of 10-12 RM. A 90-second rest interval was adopted between sets. RESULTS The session performed at 90% of 10-12 RM showed a higher number of repetitions in the second and third sets and a greater total volume, compared to the session at 100% of 10-12 RM for both young and older women (all P<0.05). However, significant no differences were observed in the fatigue index between the young and older women for the sessions performed at 90% or 100% of 10-12 RM (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that a 10% load reduction promotes a greater number of repetitions and higher total volume in young and older adults. Moreover, the results indicate that young and older women present the same Fatigue Index for the elbow flexor muscles.