Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.
Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2021;14(2):235-77
Plain language summary
Eating disorders are mental health conditions that can have implications both physiologically and also on psychological and emotional wellbeing. Eating disorders broadly fit into one of three disorders (although there are others); anorexia nervosa (AN) which is characterised by extreme energy intake restriction and disturbances in body weight/shape perceptions. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterised by recurred episodes of binging followed by compensatory behaviours such as laxative use, vomiting and/or excessive exercising. Binge-eating disorder (BEN) involved frequent periods of binging without compensatory behaviours and is considered to be more common than AN and/or BN. There is a need for effective psychosocial treatments of eating disorders that enable sufferers to achieve long-term recovery. This paper reviews 101 primary research papers and 30 systematic, meta-analysis and narrative reviews. It concludes that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which incorporates nutritional education, psychoeducation, cognitive, behavioural and self-monitoring interventions to be the most effective treatment for eating disorders, particularly BN and BED. Family-based therapy, based on the Maudsley approach where the family plays a key role in recovery, is considered to be most effective for AN. There may also be a role for low dose antipsychotic medications to help anxious and/or obsessive symptoms. Interpersonal therapy and dialectic behavioural therapy (DBT) may also be effective, where the latter aims to improve emotional regulation and reduce binging in BN and BED.
Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. RESUMO Transtornos alimentares são doenças psiquiátricas originadas de e perpetuadas por fatores individuais, familiares e socioculturais. A abordagem psicossocial é essencial para o tratamento e a prevenção de recaídas. Apresentar uma visão geral das evidências científicas sobre a efetividade das intervenções psicossociais no tratamento de transtornos alimentares. Foram incluídas todas as revisões sistemáticas publicadas no Banco de Dados de Revisões Sistemáticas da Cochrane Library. Posteriormente, a partir da data menos recente destas revisões (2001), realizou-se uma busca adicional no PubMed, com estratégia de busca sensibilizada e com os mesmos descritores utilizados antes. No total, foram incluídos 101 estudos primários e 30 revisões sistemáticas (5 revisões sistemáticas da Cochrane), metanálises, diretrizes ou revisões narrativas da literatura. Os principais desfechos foram remissão de sintomas, imagem corporal, distorção cognitiva, comorbidade psiquiátrica, funcionamento psicossocial e satisfação do paciente. A abordagem cognitivo-comportamental foi o tratamento mais efetivo, principalmente para bulimia nervosa, transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica e síndrome do comer noturno. Para anorexia nervosa, a abordagem familiar demonstrou maior efetividade. Outras abordagens efetivas foram psicoterapia interpessoal, terapia comportamental dialética, terapia de apoio e manuais de autoajuda. Além disso, houve um número crescente de abordagens preventivas e promocionais que contemplaram fatores de risco individuais, familiares e sociais, sendo promissoras para o desenvolvimento da autoimagem positiva e autoeficácia. São necessários mais estudos que avaliem o impacto de abordagens multidisciplinares em todos transtornos alimentares, além da relação custo-efetividade de algumas modalidades efetivas, como a terapia cognitivo-comportamental.
Association of prior metabolic and bariatric surgery with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with obesity.
Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery. 2021;(1):208-214
BACKGROUND Obesity is a risk factor for poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between prior metabolic surgery and the severity of COVID-19 in patients with severe obesity. SETTING Cleveland Clinic Health System in the United States. METHODS Among 4365 patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between March 8, 2020 and July 22, 2020 in the Cleveland Clinic Health System, 33 patients were identified who had a prior history of metabolic surgery. The surgical patients were propensity matched 1:10 to nonsurgical patients to assemble a cohort of control patients (n = 330) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 at the time of SARS-CoV-2 testing. The primary endpoint was the rate of hospital admission. The exploratory endpoints included admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation and dialysis during index hospitalization, and mortality. After propensity score matching, outcomes were compared in univariate and multivariate regression models. RESULTS The average BMI of the surgical group was 49.1 ± 8.8 kg/m2 before metabolic surgery and was down to 37.2 ± 7.1 at the time of SARS-CoV-2 testing, compared with the control group's BMI of 46.7 ± 6.4 kg/m2. In the univariate analysis, 6 (18.2%) patients in the metabolic surgery group and 139 (42.1%) patients in the control group were admitted to the hospital (P = .013). In the multivariate analysis, a prior history of metabolic surgery was associated with a lower hospital admission rate compared with control patients with obesity (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.88; P = .028). While none of the 4 exploratory outcomes occurred in the metabolic surgery group, 43 (13.0%) patients in the control group required ICU admission (P = .021), 22 (6.7%) required mechanical ventilation, 5 (1.5%) required dialysis, and 8 (2.4%) patients died. CONCLUSION Prior metabolic surgery with subsequent weight loss and improvement of metabolic abnormalities was associated with lower rates of hospital and ICU admission in patients with obesity who became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Confirmation of these findings will require larger studies.
Recurrent infantile inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of mesentery--Case report and review of imaging findings.
Radiology case reports. 2021;(3):504-510
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT) are rare soft tissue tumors of intermediate malignant potential with tendency for local recurrence. Although they can occur at all age groups, occurrence in infants is extremely unusual and their imaging characteristics are not well described. A 3-month-old female infant presented with gradually progressive abdominal distention without any fever or weight loss. She had a large ill-defined homogenous hypodense lesion of size 8.4 × 11.4 × 11.3 cm (APxTraxSag) in the abdomen showing mild delayed post contrast enhancement. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gross total excision of mesenteric mass, histopathology of which was suggestive of IMT. She had recurrence within 6 months of complete resection with a well-defined heterogeneously enhancing lesion of size 1.8 × 1.8 × 2.3cm (APxTraxSag) in right paravesical region abutting the bladder without invasion with a similar lesion of size 4.4 × 2.1 × 3 cm (APxTraxSag) in left subdiaphragmatic region abutting superior surface of spleen (no invasion). Since, surgery in our patient would have entailed splenectomy and partial cystectomy, systemic therapy with ceritinib (anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] inhibitor) was planned for her with which she had a near complete response after 2 months. A high index of suspicion is required to differentiate IMT from other common causes of mesenteric masses in children and role of radiologist is quintessential in this regard. Local recurrence with abutment but without invasion of surrounding structures points to the intermediate malignant pathology of IMT and may provide a clue to diagnosis. Systemic therapy is effective in patients who are ALK positive and destructive surgery should be avoided.
Maintaining Mobility in a Patient Who Is Pregnant and Has COVID-19 Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report.
Physical therapy. 2021;(1)
OBJECTIVE Mobilization while receiving life support interventions, including mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), is a recommended intensive care unit (ICU) intervention to maintain physical function. The purpose of this case report is to describe a novel approach to implementing early mobility interventions for a patient who was pregnant and receiving ECMO while continuing necessary infectious disease precautions because of diagnosed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS A 27-year-old woman who was pregnant was admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 and rapidly developed acute respiratory failure requiring 9 days of ECMO support. After a physical therapist consultation, the patient was standing at the bedside by hospital day 5 and ambulating by hospital day 9. RESULTS The patient safely participated in physical therapy during ICU admission and was discharged to home with outpatient physical therapy follow-up after 14 days of hospitalization. CONCLUSION Early mobility is feasible during ECMO with COVID-19, and active participation in physical therapy, including in-room ambulation, may facilitate discharge to home. Innovative strategies to facilitate routine activity in a patient who is critically ill with COVID-19 require an established and highly trained team with a focus on maintaining function. IMPACT Early mobility while intubated, on ECMO, and infected with COVID-19 is feasible while adhering to infectious disease precautions when it is performed by an experienced interdisciplinary team.
Recurrent ventricular septal defect following closure CorMatrix: A case report.
Journal of cardiac surgery. 2021;(1):392-395
Ventricular septal ruptures are an uncommon complication following acute myocardial infarction. Operative repair, utilizing a patch for closure of the defect, is the primary treatment modality to achieve hemodynamic stability. The use of an extracellular matrix derived from small intestinal submucosa as a scaffold for tissue repair is becoming increasingly common. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old female found to have a ventricular septal rupture and posterior left ventricular aneurysm following late presentation after a myocardial infarction that required operative repair with a CorMatrix patch. Upon readmission for dyspnea and poor exercise tolerance several months later, the patch was subsequently found to have near-completely reabsorbed. There is a paucity of long-term outcomes data following the use of CorMatrix for septal defects, with rare reports of such reabsorption. Further study is required to identify the incidence and implications of such findings.
Testicular metastasis of colorectal carcinoma: A new observation.
Urology case reports. 2021;:101544
Testicular metastases in colorectal cancer are rare, and pathogenesis still remains unclear. It tends to occur in late stage of disease and has a poor prognosis. We present a 37-year-old patient complained from abdominal pain with deterioration of performance status and weight loss. Body scan showed a recto sigmoid tumor associated with metastasis in the left liver with pelvic lymphadenopathy and hetero nodular testis. Colonoscopy showed a stenosing upper rectum tumor. Histology concluded to an adenocarcinoma. The patient had a transverse colon resection and a right orchiectomy. Histology concluded to an invasive adenocarcinoma with carcinosis, secondary testicular and hepatic metastasis.
IgG4 related disease as a cause of isolated retroperitoneal fibrosis with no other organ involvement; Case report.
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2021;:69-72
Introduction and importance: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease characterized by the replacement of normal tissue with fibrosis and inflammation. We present the case of a 40-years-old gentleman with RPF whose presenting complaints were bilateral flank pain and weight loss and was found to have IgG4 related disease. To the best of our knowledge, IgG4-related disease with isolated retroperitoneal involvement is a very rare occurrence. Case presentation: The diagnosis of IgG4-Related retroperitoneal fibrosis was made based on clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Imaging revealed isolated retroperitoneal involvement and the patient was started on oral steroids with a good clinical response after ten days. Repeated imaging months later showed significant regression in the fibrosis. Clinical discussion: RPF can occur due to many etiologies and is categorized to idiopathic and secondary. Factors associated with secondary RPF include medications, autoimmune disease, malignancy and IgG4 related disease. Almost all the reported cases of IgG4 related disease had evidence of multifocal involvement such as the pancreas, aorta and kidneys. Our patient was diagnosed with isolated RPF due to IgG4 disease. He met all the suggested diagnostic criteria, was started on oral steroids and had an excellent clinical outcome. Conclusion: IgG4 related disease can present with isolated retroperitoneal fibrosis without involvement of other organ systems. The diagnosis should be based on specific criteria. Treatment with corticosteroids can lead to remission both clinically and radiographically.
Pulmonary mucormycosis masquerading as endobronchial tumour in an immunocompetent pregnant young lady.
Respirology case reports. 2021;(2):e00704
Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare but rapidly progressing and life-threatening fungal infection, usually affecting immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a previously healthy young lady who presented with prolonged cough, weight loss, and haemoptysis. Imaging showed left hilar mass with infiltration into the left main bronchus and concurrent mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed an endobronchial mass occluding the left main bronchus. Tumour debulking was performed using rigid bronchoscopy with cryoprobe and snares. Histopathological examination revealed inflamed tissue with fungal organism. Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed Rhizopus microsporus. She was treated with two weeks of intravenous amphotericin-B with complete clinical and radiological resolution.
Outpatient Evaluation of Knee Pain.
The Medical clinics of North America. 2021;(1):117-136
Knee pain is present in up to 20% of the adult general population and can be significantly debilitating to patients. A thorough history and physical examination can help localize the source of inflammation or injury to further determine if imaging, physical therapy, specialty referral, or surgery is necessary. By following a systematic approach to evaluating knee pain, primary care physicians can make the correct diagnosis and formulate an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients.
A 49-Year-Old Man Presents With Fever of Unknown Origin and Cough.
CASE PRESENTATION A 49-year-old man presented with 3 months of persistent fever, cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. He had no response to treatment with antibiotics. He had been treated with an empiric 2-week course of steroids approximately 2 months before presentation, with mild and transient improvement. He did not use tobacco and had not experienced any weight loss, hemoptysis, arthralgia, or myalgia, and was otherwise in good health. He denied contact with anyone with pulmonary TB or other respiratory illnesses.