Lifestyle and rehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic: guidance for health professionals and support for exercise and rehabilitation programs.
Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2021;(11):1385-1396
Introduction: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory viral disease for both the general population and healthcare professionals caring for infected patients. Of particular concern is the potential for significant respiratory, cardiovascular, physical, and psychological dysfunctions.Areas covered: In this context, the current review will focus on the following areas: 1) staying physically active during the COVID-19 pandemic; 2) highlighting the importance of understanding COVID-19 mechanisms; 3) preventing infections for healthcare workers by using personal protective equipment; 4) highlighting importance of respiratory care and physical therapy during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19; and 5) facilitating referral to a rehabilitation program in patients recovering from COVID-19.Expert opinion: We recommend daily physical exercise, outdoors or at home, as physical exercise increases the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines; Patients with COVID-19 may develop severe acute respiratory syndrome, hypoxemia, diffuse alveolar damage, ACE2 reduction in the cardiovascular system and muscle weakness acquired through a prolonged hospital stay; The role of the physiotherapist in the hospital environment is of fundamental importance-early mobilization is highly recommended in severe cases of COVID-19.
The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation.
British journal of sports medicine. 2020;(16):949-959
The highly infectious and pathogenic novel coronavirus (CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, has emerged causing a global pandemic. Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, evidence indicates a multisystem disease which is frequently severe and often results in death. Long-term sequelae of COVID-19 are unknown, but evidence from previous CoV outbreaks demonstrates impaired pulmonary and physical function, reduced quality of life and emotional distress. Many COVID-19 survivors who require critical care may develop psychological, physical and cognitive impairments. There is a clear need for guidance on the rehabilitation of COVID-19 survivors. This consensus statement was developed by an expert panel in the fields of rehabilitation, sport and exercise medicine (SEM), rheumatology, psychiatry, general practice, psychology and specialist pain, working at the Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre, Stanford Hall, UK. Seven teams appraised evidence for the following domains relating to COVID-19 rehabilitation requirements: pulmonary, cardiac, SEM, psychological, musculoskeletal, neurorehabilitation and general medical. A chair combined recommendations generated within teams. A writing committee prepared the consensus statement in accordance with the appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation criteria, grading all recommendations with levels of evidence. Authors scored their level of agreement with each recommendation on a scale of 0-10. Substantial agreement (range 7.5-10) was reached for 36 recommendations following a chaired agreement meeting that was attended by all authors. This consensus statement provides an overarching framework assimilating evidence and likely requirements of multidisciplinary rehabilitation post COVID-19 illness, for a target population of active individuals, including military personnel and athletes.