Social environmental impact of COVID-19 and erectile dysfunction: an explorative review.
Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2022;(3):483-487
BACKGROUND To date, no attempt has been made to collate literature on the relationship between the social environmental impact of COVID-19 and erectile dysfunction. The aim of this explorative review was to assess and compare the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in male healthcare workers and males during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS A systematic review of major databases from inception to February 2021 was conducted. Prevalence data were extracted, and a random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken. OUTCOMES The pooled prevalence of ED amongst healthcare workers working in COVID-19 specific environments, and non-healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS Of 52 initial studies, six were included for the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of ED in healthcare workers working in a COVID-19 environment was 63.6% (95% CI 20.3-92.3%), and in non-healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic was 31.9% (95% CI 19.5-47.6%). CONCLUSION The prevalence of ED in healthcare workers working in COVID-19 environments was higher than representative samples and is of concern. Sexual health (and by extension, overall health), should be a priority when considering ways to care for this population. Considering the social environmental impact of COVID-19 on sexual health and in particular on ED, it is important to provide adequate psychological support systems and to promote quality of life with particular attention to sexual health.
Impact of lockdown for COVID-19 pandemic in Indian children and youth with type 1 diabetes from different socio-economic classes.
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM. 2021;(2):217-223
OBJECTIVES In March 2020, lockdown was imposed in India to combat spread of Coronavirus, which was extended till 31st May. Implementation of lockdown and limited outdoor activities resulted in changes in routines of children with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lockdown on glycemic control, weight and body mass index (BMI) patterns of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) from different socio-economic (SE) classes. METHODS This observational study included 77 children and youth (5-20 years) with T1DM having disease duration of ≥6 months. Demographic data and investigations were recorded at two time points (post lockdown when the children came for follow up, pre lockdown data from medical records). RESULTS Glycemic control improved (pre lockdown HbA1C 79.4±19.2 vs. post lockdown Hba1C 74.5±16.9 mmol/mol, p<0.05) and there was weight gain post lockdown (pre lockdown weight z-score -0.4±0.8 vs. post lockdown weight z-score -0.2±0.8, p<0.05) without any significant change in BMI and insulin requirements. Improved glycemic was seen in the lower SE group control post lockdown (p<0.05), whereas in higher SE group, it remained unchanged. Children whose parents were at home during lockdown showed an improved glycemic control (p<0.05) as compared to children whose parents continued to work during lockdown (p>0.01). CONCLUSIONS During coronavirus lockdown, glycemic control was adequately maintained in children with T1DM, highlighting importance of stronger family support system leading to more steady daily routine.
Bariatric and metabolic surgery during and after the COVID-19 pandemic: DSS recommendations for management of surgical candidates and postoperative patients and prioritisation of access to surgery.
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 2020;8(7):640-648
Plain language summary
Bariatric surgery has been proven for weight loss in people with severe obesity. However, during the covid-19 pandemic, surgery has been postponed for many individuals. Under normal conditions, patients who are awaiting bariatric surgery are prioritised based on weight, however this does not necessarily reflect severity of their condition. This review paper aimed to develop new criteria in order to help prioritise individuals who are awaiting bariatric surgery. The authors began by reviewing the reasons for delaying bariatric surgery and the need for beds, the risks of covid-19 transmission during the procedure and the severe covid-19 complications that individuals with obesity can experience were discussed. A recommendation was made that all patients having bariatric surgery be tested for Covid-19. Solutions were proposed for those awaiting surgery such as diets, exercise, optimal blood sugar control and the potential use of weight loss medications. Prioritisation of surgery should focus on clinical need; it should be accessible and minimise harm from delays. Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes should be prioritised based on those who have an increased risk of death, determined by whether the individual; has poor blood sugar control despite maximal use of medications to control it, uses insulin, has previous heart disease, has liver disease or if they have other risk factors. It was concluded that weight alone is inadequate to prioritise candidates for bariatric surgery. Disease severity should be at the centre of decisions, especially when access to surgery is reduced, as is during the Covid -19 pandemic. This paper could be used by healthcare professionals to understand how to prioritise their obese and type 2 diabetic patients who are awaiting bariatric surgery.
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is wreaking havoc on society, especially health-care systems, including disrupting bariatric and metabolic surgery. The current limitations on accessibility to non-urgent care undermine postoperative monitoring of patients who have undergone such operations. Furthermore, like most elective surgery, new bariatric and metabolic procedures are being postponed worldwide during the pandemic. When the outbreak abates, a backlog of people seeking these operations will exist. Hence, surgical candidates face prolonged delays of beneficial treatment. Because of the progressive nature of obesity and diabetes, delaying surgery increases risks for morbidity and mortality, thus requiring strategies to mitigate harm. The risk of harm, however, varies among patients, depending on the type and severity of their comorbidities. A triaging strategy is therefore needed. The traditional weight-centric patient-selection criteria do not favour cases based on actual clinical needs. In this Personal View, experts from the Diabetes Surgery Summit consensus conference series provide guidance for the management of patients while surgery is delayed and for postoperative surveillance. We also offer a strategy to prioritise bariatric and metabolic surgery candidates on the basis of the diseases that are most likely to be ameliorated postoperatively. Although our system will be particularly germane in the immediate future, it also provides a framework for long-term clinically meaningful prioritisation.
Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank.
Journal of public health (Oxford, England). 2020;42(3):451-460
Plain language summary
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has to date resulted in over 6 million cases. Growing reports highlight men and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) cohorts as at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether differential patterns of COVID-19 incidence and severity, by sex and ethnicity, might be explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, lifestyle and behavioural exposures. This study is a prospective cohort study of over half a million men and women from across the UK. Results showed that male sex, BAME ethnicity, higher body mass index and greater household size were associated with significantly greater odds of a positive result. However, the sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, socio-economic or behavioural factors. Authors conclude that investigation of alternative biological and genetic susceptibilities as well as more comprehensive assessment of the complex economic, social and behavioural differences should be prioritised.
BACKGROUND We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic or behavioural factors. METHODS We studied 4510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n = 1326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of (1) cardiometabolic factors [diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking and body mass index (BMI)]; (2) 25(OH)-vitamin D; (3) poor diet; (4) Townsend deprivation score; (5) housing (home type, overcrowding) or (6) behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. RESULTS There was over-representation of men and BAME ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. BAME individuals had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and in flats/apartments. Male sex, BAME ethnicity, higher BMI, higher Townsend deprivation score and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. CONCLUSIONS In this study, sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 was not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels or socio-economic factors. Factors which underlie ethnic differences in COVID-19 may not be easily captured, and so investigation of alternative biological and genetic susceptibilities as well as more comprehensive assessment of the complex economic, social and behavioural differences should be prioritised.
Comparing eating behaviours, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between Spain and Greece during the COVID-19 outbreak: Cross-sectional analysis of two different confinement strategies.
European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association. 2020;28(6):836-846
Plain language summary
Stress and mental health problems which may be induced by restrictions imposed during the Covid-19 pandemic can lead to unhealthy eating habits. Restrictions have varied amongst countries and this cross-sectional analysis aimed to compare eating behaviours and symptoms of stress experienced by 1841 individuals in countries with differing lockdown measures. The results showed that individuals in the country with higher lockdown measures showed lower restraint in eating, they were more likely to overeat if they saw or smelt food and reported increased anxiety. However, they did not display depression or overeating when experiencing negative feelings. It was concluded that both countries had a high frequency of depression and anxiety. Higher restrictions were associated with greater anxiety, lower restraint and overeating when confronted with food. This paper could be used by healthcare professionals to recognise the need to include dietary advice when dealing with patients who are reporting anxiety during the current Covid-19 pandemic.
OBJECTIVE We compared eating behaviours, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in two countries with different confinement strictness strategies and different levels of COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD A web-based cross-sectional survey was administered during and shortly after the COVID-19 related lockdown in Spain and Greece. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify country differences associated with eating behaviour, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. RESULTS This study included 1,002 responders in Spain and 839 in Greece. The mean ± SD of restraint, emotional and external eating was 2.5 ± 0.79, 2.1 ± 0.81 and 2.6 ± 0.65 in Spain, whereas 2.7 ± 0.85, 2.3 ± 0.99 and 2.9 ± 0.74 in Greece. Spanish participants had lower average scores of restraint and external eating compared to Greek participants (p < .001), but no difference was seen for emotional eating. In Spain, 13.6%, and 12.3% of the survey respondents reported moderate to severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, whereas in Greece the respective values were 18.8 and 13.2%. After adjusting for several risk factors, a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was observed in Spain compared to Greece (p = .001), but no difference was seen for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated high scores of inappropriate eating behaviours and a high frequency of depressive and anxiety symptoms in two Mediterranean countries during the COVID-19 outbreak. Our findings revealed that compared to Greek participants, Spanish participants, that faced more severe COVID-19 pandemic and stricter lockdown measures, were associated with lower restraint and external eating and increased anxiety symptoms, but not with depressive symptoms or emotional eating.
Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Web-Based Upper Limb Home Rehabilitation System Using a Smartwatch and Machine Learning Model for Chronic Stroke Survivors: Prospective Comparative Study.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2020;(7):e17216
BACKGROUND Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology have shown the feasibility of remote physical therapy at home. In particular, the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need and opportunity of internet-based wearable technology in future health care systems. Previous research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition technologies for monitoring rehabilitation activities in home environments; however, few comprehensive studies ranging from development to clinical evaluation exist. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to (1) develop a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) system that can recognize and record the type and frequency of rehabilitation exercises conducted by the user using a smartwatch and smartphone app equipped with a machine learning (ML) algorithm and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the home-based rehabilitation system through a prospective comparative study with chronic stroke survivors. METHODS The HBR system involves an off-the-shelf smartwatch, a smartphone, and custom-developed apps. A convolutional neural network was used to train the ML algorithm for detecting home exercises. To determine the most accurate way for detecting the type of home exercise, we compared accuracy results with the data sets of personal or total data and accelerometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer combined with gyroscope data. From March 2018 to February 2019, we conducted a clinical study with two groups of stroke survivors. In total, 17 and 6 participants were enrolled for statistical analysis in the HBR group and control group, respectively. To measure clinical outcomes, we performed the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity, grip power test, Beck Depression Inventory, and range of motion (ROM) assessment of the shoulder joint at 0, 6, and 12 months, and at a follow-up assessment 6 weeks after retrieving the HBR system. RESULTS The ML model created with personal data involving accelerometer combined with gyroscope data (5590/5601, 99.80%) was the most accurate compared with accelerometer (5496/5601, 98.13%) or gyroscope data (5381/5601, 96.07%). In the comparative study, the drop-out rates in the control and HBR groups were 40% (4/10) and 22% (5/22) at 12 weeks and 100% (10/10) and 45% (10/22) at 18 weeks, respectively. The HBR group (n=17) showed a significant improvement in the mean WMFT score (P=.02) and ROM of flexion (P=.004) and internal rotation (P=.001). The control group (n=6) showed a significant change only in shoulder internal rotation (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS This study found that a home care system using a commercial smartwatch and ML model can facilitate participation in home training and improve the functional score of the WMFT and shoulder ROM of flexion and internal rotation in the treatment of patients with chronic stroke. This strategy can possibly be a cost-effective tool for the home care treatment of stroke survivors in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical Research Information Service KCT0004818; https://tinyurl.com/y92w978t.