Climate Change and Obesity.
Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme. 2021;(9):575-587
Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.
Bernardino Ramazzini's De Morbis Artificum Diatriba on Workers' Health-the Birth of a New Discipline.
Journal of UOEH. 2021;(3):341-348
This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.
Historical Insight into Infections and Disorders Associated with Neurological and Psychiatric Sequelae Similar to Long COVID.
Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2021;27:e931447
Plain language summary
Literature shows that there are long-term symptoms and organ damage in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that persist after the acute illness. The aim of this review was to present a historical overview of infections and disorders associated with the neurological and psychiatric sequelae that have shown similarities with long COVID. Historically, the common symptom of altered cognition has been reported during earlier pandemics. Pandemics discussed in this review include; influenza pandemics of 1889 and 1892 (Russian flu), Spanish flu pandemic (1918-1919), encephalitis lethargica, diphtheria, and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome or post-viral fatigue syndrome). Furthermore, literature shows that there are similarities between the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and the brain fog of long COVID. Viral infection, cerebral hypoxia [reduced supply of oxygen to the brain), cognitive dysfunction, or brain fog may occur along a common pathway in the long-term pathogenesis of epidemic and pandemic infections, including COVID-19. Authors conclude that utilising data from past epidemics and pandemics may help to identify common acute and chronic syndromes, including neurological and psychiatric sequelae with similarities to the conditions currently described in patients with long COVID.
Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now recognized. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the terminology for this emerging chronic clinical syndrome, which includes long COVID, chronic COVID syndrome, post-COVID-19 syndrome, post-acute COVID-19, and long-hauler COVID-19. In this review, I will use the term "long COVID". A review of the medical history and epidemiology of past pandemics and epidemics in modern literature review identifies common long-term post-infectious disorders, with the common finding of altered cognition. In the brain, the cerebral hypoxia induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in "brain fog". Historically, the common symptom of altered cognition has been reported during earlier pandemics, which include the influenza pandemics of 1889 and 1892 (Russian flu), the Spanish flu pandemic (1918-1919), encephalitis lethargica, diphtheria, and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome or post-viral fatigue syndrome). There are similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome and the "brain fog" described in long COVID. During past viral epidemics and pandemics, a commonality of neural targets may have increased viral survival by conformational matching. The neurological and psychiatric sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or long COVID, may have emerged from neural effects that have emerged from an invertebrate and vertebrate virosphere. This review aims to present a historical overview of infections and disorders associated with neurological and psychiatric sequelae that have shown similarities with long COVID.
Impacts of the 2008 Great Recession on dietary intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2021;(1):57
BACKGROUND The 2008 Great Recession significantly impacted economies and individuals globally, with potential impacts on food systems and dietary intake. We systematically reviewed evidence on the impact of the Great Recession on individuals' dietary intake globally and whether disadvantaged individuals were disproportionately affected. METHODS We searched seven databases and relevant grey literature through June 2020. Longitudinal quantitative studies with the 2008 recession as the exposure and any measure of dietary intake (energy intake, dietary quality, and food/macronutrient consumption) as the outcome were eligible for inclusion. Eligibility was independently assessed by two reviewers. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality and risk of bias assessment. We undertook a random effects meta-analysis for changes in energy intake. Harvest plots were used to display and summarise study results for other outcomes. The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019135864). RESULTS Forty-one studies including 2.6 million people met our inclusion criteria and were heterogenous in both methods and results. Ten studies reported energy intake, 11 dietary quality, 34 food intake, and 13 macronutrient consumption. The Great Recession was associated with a mean reduction of 103.0 cal per adult equivalent per day (95% Confidence Interval: - 132.1, - 73.9) in high-income countries (5 studies) and an increase of 105.5 cal per adult per day (95% Confidence Interval: 72.8, 138.2) in middle-income countries (2 studies) following random effects meta-analysis. We found reductions in fruit and vegetable intake. We also found reductions in intake of fast food, sugary products, and soft drinks. Impacts on macronutrients and dietary quality were inconclusive, though suggestive of a decrease in dietary quality. The Great Recession had greater impacts on dietary intake for disadvantaged individuals. CONCLUSIONS The 2008 recession was associated with diverse impacts on diets. Calorie intake decreased in high income countries but increased in middle income countries. Fruit and vegetable consumption reduced, especially for more disadvantaged individuals, which may negatively affect health. Fast food, sugary products, and soft drink consumption also decreased which may confer health benefits. Implementing effective policies to mitigate adverse nutritional changes and encourage positive changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and other major economic shocks should be prioritised.