COVID-19 and Atrial Fibrillation in Older Patients: Does Oral Anticoagulant Therapy Provide a Survival Benefit?-An Insight from the GeroCovid Registry.
Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;(1):105-112
INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent arrhythmia of older patients, associates with serious thromboembolic complications and high mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely affects aged subjects, determining an important prothrombotic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality-related factors in older AF patients with COVID-19. METHODS Between March and June 2020, we enrolled ≥60 year-old in-hospital COVID-19 patients (n = 806) in GeroCovid, a multicenter observational study promoted by the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine. RESULTS The prevalence of AF was 21.8%. In-hospital mortality was higher in the AF group (36.9 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.015). At admission, 51.7, 10.2, and 38.1% of AF cases were taking, respectively, oral anticoagulants (OACs), antiplatelet agents, and no antithrombotic therapy. During hospitalization, 51% patients switched to low-molecular-weight heparins. AF patients who survived were younger (81 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 7 years; p = 0.002) and had a lower CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.9 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.02) than those who died. OAC use before (63.1 vs. 32.3%; p < 0.001) and during hospitalization (34.0 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002) was higher among survivors. At multivariable analysis, lower age, higher self-sufficiency, less severe initial COVID-19 presentation, and the use of vitamin K antagonists (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.84) or direct OACs (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56) at admission, or the persistence of OAC during hospitalization (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), were associated with a lower chance of in-hospital death. CONCLUSION AF is a prevalent and severe condition in older COVID-19 patients. Advanced age, dependency, and relevant clinical manifestations of disease characterized a worse prognosis. Preadmission and in-hospital anticoagulant therapies were positively associated with survival.
Dendrimer nanotherapy for severe COVID-19 attenuates inflammation and neurological injury markers and improves outcomes in a phase2a clinical trial.
Science translational medicine. 2022;(654):eabo2652
Hyperinflammation triggered by SARS-CoV-2 is a major cause of disease severity, with activated macrophages implicated in this response. OP-101, a hydroxyl-polyamidoamine dendrimer-N-acetylcysteine conjugate that specifically targets activated macrophages, improves outcomes in preclinical models of systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive phase 2a trial, we evaluated safety and preliminary efficacy of OP-101 in patients with severe COVID-19. Twenty-four patients classified as having severe COVID-19 with a baseline World Health Organization seven-point ordinal scale of ≥5 were randomized to receive a single intravenous dose of placebo (n = 7 patients) or OP-101 at 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), or 8 mg/kg (n = 5 patients). All study participants received standard of care, including corticosteroids. OP-101 at 4 mg/kg was better than placebo at decreasing inflammatory markers; OP-101 at 4 and 8 mg/kg was better than placebo at reducing neurological injury markers, (neurofilament light chain and glial fibrillary acidic protein). Risk for the composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death at 30 and 60 days after treatment was 71% (95% CI: 29%, 96%) for placebo and 18% (95% CI: 4%, 43%; P = 0.021) for the pooled OP-101 treatment arms. At 60 days, 3 of 7 patients given placebo and 14 of 17 OP-101-treated patients were surviving. No drug-related adverse events were reported. These data show that OP-101 was well tolerated and may have potential to treat systemic inflammation and neuronal injury, reducing morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19.
Efficacy of the adjuvanted subunit protein COVID-19 vaccine, SCB-2019: a phase 2 and 3 multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet (London, England). 2022;(10323):461-472
BACKGROUND A range of safe and effective vaccines against SARS CoV 2 are needed to address the COVID 19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine SCB-2019. METHODS This ongoing phase 2 and 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done in adults aged 18 years and older who were in good health or with a stable chronic health condition, at 31 sites in five countries (Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Philippines, and South Africa). The participants were randomly assigned 1:1 using a centralised internet randomisation system to receive two 0·5 mL intramuscular doses of SCB-2019 (30 μg, adjuvanted with 1·50 mg CpG-1018 and 0·75 mg alum) or placebo (0·9% sodium chloride for injection supplied in 10 mL ampoules) 21 days apart. All study staff and participants were masked, but vaccine administrators were not. Primary endpoints were vaccine efficacy, measured by RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 of any severity with onset from 14 days after the second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2 seronegative participants (the per-protocol population), and the safety and solicited local and systemic adverse events in the phase 2 subset. This study is registered on EudraCT (2020-004272-17) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04672395). FINDINGS 30 174 participants were enrolled from March 24, 2021, until the cutoff date of Aug 10, 2021, of whom 30 128 received their first assigned vaccine (n=15 064) or a placebo injection (n=15 064). The per-protocol population consisted of 12 355 baseline SARS-CoV-2-naive participants (6251 vaccinees and 6104 placebo recipients). Most exclusions (13 389 [44·4%]) were because of seropositivity at baseline. There were 207 confirmed per-protocol cases of COVID-19 at 14 days after the second dose, 52 vaccinees versus 155 placebo recipients, and an overall vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 of 67·2% (95·72% CI 54·3-76·8), 83·7% (97·86% CI 55·9-95·4) against moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and 100% (97·86% CI 25·3-100·0) against severe COVID-19. All COVID-19 cases were due to virus variants; vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 due to the three predominant variants was 78·7% (95% CI 57·3-90·4) for delta, 91·8% (44·9-99·8) for gamma, and 58·6% (13·3-81·5) for mu. No safety issues emerged in the follow-up period for the efficacy analysis (median of 82 days [IQR 63-103]). The vaccine elicited higher rates of mainly mild-to-moderate injection site pain than the placebo after the first (35·7% [287 of 803] vs 10·3% [81 of 786]) and second (26·9% [189 of 702] vs 7·4% [52 of 699]) doses, but the rates of other solicited local and systemic adverse events were similar between the groups. INTERPRETATION Two doses of SCB-2019 vaccine plus CpG and alum provides notable protection against the entire severity spectrum of COVID-19 caused by circulating SAR-CoV-2 viruses, including the predominating delta variant. FUNDING Clover Biopharmaceuticals and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.
Venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients and prediction model: a multicenter cohort study.
BMC infectious diseases. 2022;(1):462
BACKGROUND Patients with COVID-19 infection are commonly reported to have an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The choice of anti-thrombotic agents and doses are currently being studied in randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies. There exists a need for individualized risk stratification of venous thromboembolism (VTE) to assist clinicians in decision-making on anticoagulation. We sought to identify the risk factors of VTE in COVID-19 patients, which could help physicians in the prevention, early identification, and management of VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and improve clinical outcomes in these patients. METHOD This is a multicenter, retrospective database of four main health systems in Southeast Michigan, United States. We compiled comprehensive data for adult COVID-19 patients who were admitted between 1st March 2020 and 31st December 2020. Four models, including the random forest, multiple logistic regression, multilinear regression, and decision trees, were built on the primary outcome of in-hospital acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and tested for performance. The study also reported hospital length of stay (LOS) and intensive care unit (ICU) LOS in the VTE and the non-VTE patients. Four models were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and confusion matrix. RESULTS The cohort included 3531 admissions, 3526 had discharge diagnoses, and 6.68% of patients developed acute VTE (N = 236). VTE group had a longer hospital and ICU LOS than the non-VTE group (hospital LOS 12.2 days vs. 8.8 days, p < 0.001; ICU LOS 3.8 days vs. 1.9 days, p < 0.001). 9.8% of patients in the VTE group required more advanced oxygen support, compared to 2.7% of patients in the non-VTE group (p < 0.001). Among all four models, the random forest model had the best performance. The model suggested that blood pressure, electrolytes, renal function, hepatic enzymes, and inflammatory markers were predictors for in-hospital VTE in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS Patients with COVID-19 have a high risk for VTE, and patients who developed VTE had a prolonged hospital and ICU stay. This random forest prediction model for VTE in COVID-19 patients identifies predictors which could aid physicians in making a clinical judgment on empirical dosages of anticoagulation.
A single-oral bolus of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol at hospital admission did not improve outcomes in the COVID-19 disease: the COVID-VIT-D-a randomised multicentre international clinical trial.
BMC medicine. 2022;(1):83
BACKGROUND Vitamin D status has been implicated in COVID-19 disease. The objective of the COVID-VIT-D trial was to investigate if an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (100,000 IU) administered at hospital admission influences the outcomes of moderate-severe COVID-19 disease. In the same cohort, the association between baseline serum calcidiol levels with the same outcomes was also analysed. METHODS The COVID-VIT-D is a multicentre, international, randomised, open label, clinical trial conducted throughout 1 year. Patients older than 18 years with moderate-severe COVID-19 disease requiring hospitalisation were included. At admission, patients were randomised 1:1 to receive a single oral bolus of cholecalciferol (n=274) or nothing (n=269). Patients were followed from admission to discharge or death. Length of hospitalisation, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality were assessed. RESULTS In the randomised trial, comorbidities, biomarkers, symptoms and drugs used did not differ between groups. Median serum calcidiol in the cholecalciferol and control groups were 17.0 vs. 16.1 ng/mL at admission and 29.0 vs. 16.4 ng/mL at discharge, respectively. The median length of hospitalisation (10.0 [95%CI 9.0-10.5] vs. 9.5 [95%CI 9.0-10.5] days), admission to ICU (17.2% [95%CI 13.0-22.3] vs. 16.4% [95%CI 12.3-21.4]) and death rate (8.0% [95%CI 5.2-12.1] vs. 5.6% [95%CI 3.3-9.2]) did not differ between the cholecalciferol and control group. In the cohort analyses, the highest serum calcidiol category at admission (>25ng/mL) was associated with lower percentage of pulmonary involvement and better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The randomised clinical trial showed the administration of an oral bolus of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol at hospital admission did not improve the outcomes of the COVID-19 disease. A cohort analysis showed that serum calcidiol at hospital admission was associated with outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION COVID-VIT-D trial was authorised by the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health products (AEMPS) and registered in European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT 2020-002274-28) and in ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04552951 ).
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on disease stage and treatment for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A French comprehensive multicentre ambispective observational cohort study (CAPANCOVID).
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2022;:8-20
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic caused major oncology care pathway disruption. The CAPANCOVID study aimed to evaluate the impact on pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) - from diagnosis to treatment - of the reorganisation of the health care system during the first lockdown. METHODS This multicentre ambispective observational study included 833 patients diagnosed with PA between September 1, 2019 and October 31, 2020 from 13 French centres. Data were compared over three periods defined as before the outbreak of COVID-19, during the first lockdown (March 1 to May 11, 2020) and after lockdown. RESULTS During the lockdown, mean weekly number of new cases decreased compared with that of pre-pandemic levels (13.2 vs. 10.8, -18.2%; p = 0.63) without rebound in the post-lockdown period (13.2 vs. 12.9, -1.7%; p = 0.97). The number of borderline tumours increased (13.6%-21.7%), whereas the rate of metastatic diseases rate dropped (47.1%-40.3%) (p = 0.046). Time-to-diagnosis and -treatment were not different over periods. Waiting neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable tumours was significantly favoured (24.7%-32.6%) compared with upfront surgery (13%-7.8%) (p = 0.013). The use of mFOLFIRINOX preoperative chemotherapy regimen decreased (84.9%-69%; p = 0.044). After lockdown, the number of borderline tumours decreased (21.7%-9.6%) and advanced diseases increased (59.7%-69.8%) (p = 0.046). SARS-CoV-2 infected 39 patients (4.7%) causing 5 deaths (12.8%). CONCLUSION This cohort study suggests the existence of missing diagnoses and of a shift in disease stage at diagnosis from resectable to advanced diseases with related therapeutic modifications whose prognostic consequences will be known after the planned follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04406571.
Quantity of IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein predicts pulmonary recovery from COVID-19.
Scientific reports. 2022;(1):3677
The CovILD study is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to systematically follow up patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We extensively evaluated 145 COVID-19 patients at 3 follow-up visits scheduled for 60, 100, and 180 days after initial confirmed diagnosis based on typical symptoms and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We employed comprehensive pulmonary function and laboratory tests, including serum concentrations of IgG against the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, and compared the results to clinical data and chest computed tomography (CT). We found that at the 60 day follow-up, 131 of 145 (90.3%) participants displayed S-specific serum IgG levels above the cut-off threshold. Notably, the highly elevated IgG levels against S glycoprotein positively correlated with biomarkers of immune activation and negatively correlated with pulmonary function and the extent of pulmonary CT abnormalities. Based on the association between serum S glycoprotein-specific IgG and clinical outcome, we generated an S-specific IgG-based recovery score that, when applied in the early convalescent phase, accurately predicted delayed pulmonary recovery after COVID-19. Therefore, we propose that S-specific IgG levels serve as a useful immunological surrogate marker for identifying at-risk individuals with persistent pulmonary injury who may require intensive follow-up care after COVID-19.
Growth and Gastrointestinal Tolerance in Healthy Term Infants Fed Milk-Based Infant Formula Supplemented with Five Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs): A Randomized Multicenter Trial.
Background: Five of the most abundant human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in human milk are 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL), lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL). Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled parallel feeding trial evaluated growth in healthy term infants fed a control milk-based formula (CF; n = 129), experimental milk-based formula (EF; n = 130) containing five HMOs (5.75 g/L; 2'-FL, 3-FL, LNT, 3'-SL and 6'-SL) or human milk (HM; n = 104). Results: No significant differences (all p ≥ 0.337, protocol evaluable cohort) were observed among the three groups for weight gain per day from 14 to 119 days (D) of age, irrespective of COVID-19 or combined non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. There were no differences (p ≥ 0.05) among the three groups for gains in weight and length from D14 to D119. Compared to the CF group, the EF group had more stools that were soft, frequent and yellow and were similar to the HM group. Serious and non-serious adverse events were not different among groups, but more CF-fed infants were seen by health care professionals for illness from study entry to D56 (p = 0.044) and D84 (p = 0.028) compared to EF-fed infants. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the EF containing five HMOs supported normal growth, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and safe use in healthy term infants.
Beneficial effects of novel aureobasidium pullulans strains produced beta-1,3-1,6 glucans on interleukin-6 and D-dimer levels in COVID-19 patients; results of a randomized multiple-arm pilot clinical study.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2022;:112243
OBJECTIVE In this pilot clinical study, we report the beneficial effects of beta glucans derived from two strains AFO-202 and N-163 of a black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans on the biomarkers for cytokine storm and coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS A total of 24 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients were recruited and randomly divided into three groups (Gr): Gr. 1 control (n = 8) - Standard treatment; Gr. 2: Standard treatment + AFO-202 beta glucan (n = 8); and Gr. 3, Standard treatment + combination of AFO-202 and N-163 beta glucans (n = 8) for 30 days. RESULTS There was no mortality or requirement of ventilation of the subjects in any of the groups. There was a decrease in D-Dimer values (751 ng/ml to 143.89 ng/ml) and IL-6 values (7.395-3.16 pg/ml) in Gr. 1 in 15 days but the levels increased to abnormal levels on day 30 (D-Dimer: 202.5 ng/ml; IL-6 55.37 pg/ml); which steadily decreased up to day 30 in groups 2 (D-dimer: 560.99 ng/dl to 79.615; IL-6: 26.18-3.41 pg/ml) and 3 (D-dimer: 1614 ng/dl to 164.25 ng/dl; IL-6: 6.25-0.5 pg/ml). The same trend was observed with ESR. LCR and LeCR increased while NLR decreased significantly in Gr. 3. CD4 + and CD8 + T cell count showed relatively higher increase in Gr.3. There was no difference in CRP within the groups. CONCLUSION As these beta glucans are well known food supplements with a track record for safety, larger multi-centric clinical studies are recommended to validate their use as an adjunct in the management of COVID-19 and the ensuing long COVID-19 syndrome.
Alarming increase in ketoacidosis in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel.
Pediatric diabetes. 2022;(1):10-18
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the incidence and severity of ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes diagnosis during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Israel. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based study the product of a national collaboration of Israeli pediatric diabetes centers investigated the presentation of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. The frequencies of DKA and severe DKA observed during the COVID-19 period from March 15, 2020 (commencement of the first nationwide lockdown) until June 30, 2020 were compared with the same periods in 2019, 2018, and 2017 using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic position. RESULTS During the COVID-19 period, DKA incidence was 58.2%, significantly higher than in 2019 (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.18 [95% CI, 1.31-3.60], P = 0.003); 2018 (aOR 2.05 [95% CI, 1.26-3.34], P = 0.004); and 2017 (aOR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.09-2.93], P = 0.022). The incidence of severe DKA was 19.9%, significantly higher than in 2018 (aOR, 2.49 [95% CI, 1.20-5.19], P = 0.015) and 2017 (aOR, 2.73 [95% CI, 1.28-5.82], P = 0.009). In 2020, admissions and duration of stay in the intensive care unit were higher than in previous years (P = 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, children aged 6-11 years had higher incidences of DKA (61.3% vs. 34.0%, 40.6%, and 45.1%, respectively, P = 0.012), and severe DKA (29.3% vs. 15.1%, 10.9%, and 5.9%, respectively, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS The dramatic increase in DKA at presentation of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.