Multimodal ayurvedic approach in the management of moderate SARS-COV2 infection with co-morbidities - A case report.
Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2022;(1):344-349
Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic which has claimed more than 1.4 million lives as of today. This unprecedented period demands greatly for the traditional and native medical systems which are time-tested and holistic. Some of the recent studies have reported severe infection in individuals with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, old age, etc. Ayurveda understands this condition as Agantuja Jwara of Sannipatika origin. Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus) is basically a disease of depleted Ojus (immunity) as per Ayurveda. Methods: Here, we report a case of COVID-19 in an elderly overweight patient with diabetes, which was managed successfully with Ayurvedic medicines, diet, lifestyle, yoga, and rejuvenative therapy. Case Description: A 70-year-old male consulted our physician through phone call and willfully wanted to take Ayurvedic management for COVID-19. On the 1st day of treatment, the patient complained of fever at 103 F, headache, and severe body ache. Later on, started with a cough, headache, shortness of breath, excessive thirst, etc. Based on the symptom cluster and food-exercise routine, Kapha and Pitta were the vitiated body humors. Results: After thorough Ayurvedic assessment, the patient was administered with Langhana, Pachana (procedures to improve digestive metabolism), anti-pyretic, and antidiabetic medications followed by yoga and pranayama. The patient was also advised rejuvenative therapy to prevent further post-COVID complications. Quality of Life was assessed with Quality of Life Instrument for Indian Diabetes Patients (QOLID) and EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D). The patient was completely relieved from major symptoms in 4 days and tested negative after 12 days, with considerable improvement in QOL. The case was followed up for 60 days, and no post-COVID symptoms were reported.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.
Nature reviews. Immunology. 2022;(5):277-282
SARS-CoV-2 infection poses increased risks of poor outcomes during pregnancy, including preterm birth and stillbirth. There is also developing concern over the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the placenta, and these effects seem to vary between different viral variants. Despite these risks, many pregnant individuals have been reluctant to be vaccinated against the virus owing to safety concerns. We now have extensive data confirming the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, although it will also be necessary to determine the effectiveness of these vaccines specifically against newly emerging viral variants, including Omicron. In this Progress article, I cover recent developments in our understanding of the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, and how vaccination can reduce these.
COVID-19 and screen-based sedentary behaviour: Systematic review of digital screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
PloS one. 2022;(3):e0265560
AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted governments around the globe to implement various restriction policies, including lockdown, social distancing, and school closures. Subsequently, there has been a surge in sedentary behaviour particularly screen time (ST) together with a significant decline in physical activity that was more marked amongst children and adolescents. Excessive screen exposure in adolescents has been correlated with cardio-metabolic risk factors including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and glucose intolerance that may have adverse morbidity and mortality implications in adulthood. Thus, the current study aimed to synthesize the literature on the relationship between ST of various types and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS In August 2021, a systematic search of the literature was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochran library. Studies were considered if they met the following key eligibility criteria: (i) Measure of ST as an exposure (TV, computer, videogames, internet, smartphone, tablet), using quantified duration/frequency either self-reported or observed; (ii) Measure of MetS as an outcome with standard definition and/or criteria required to establish MetS diagnosis. The Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies was used to assess the risk of bias. RESULTS A total of ten studies met the inclusion criteria, and the majority were cross sectional studies. Most studies met fair bias scoring. Overall, the review revealed considerable evidence that suggests a significant negative association between ST and components of MetS among adolescents with dose-response association. CONCLUSION During the pandemic, screen usage may become more prevalent through periods of school closures, lockdowns, social isolation, and online learning classes. Public health policies and health promotion strategies targeting parents are needed to raise awareness of the adverse health effects associated with screen-based sedentary behaviour as a precursor of NCDs. Parent or home focused interventions might be effective in limiting adolescents' screen exposure, alternatively substituted with an appropriate level of physical activity. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER PROSPERO 2021 CRD42021272436.
Internet of things in the management of chronic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review.
Health science reports. 2022;(2):e557
Introduction: The use of new technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) in the management of chronic diseases, especially in the COVID pandemics, could be a life-saving appliance for public health practice. The purpose of the current study is to identify the applications and capability of IoT and digital health in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This systematic review was conducted by searching the online databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science using selected keywords to retrieve the relevant literature published until December 25th, 2021. The most relevant original English studies were included after initial screening based on the inclusion criteria. Results: Overall, 18 studies were included. Most of the studies reported benefits and positive responses in the form of patients' and healthcare providers' satisfaction and trust in the online systems. Many services were provided to the patients, including but not limited to training the patients on their conditions; monitoring vital signs and required actions when vital signs were altered; ensuring treatment adherence; monitoring and consulting the patients regarding diet, physical activity, and lifestyle. Conclusion: IoT is a new technology, which can help us improve health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. It has a network of various sensors, obtaining data from patients. We have found several applications for this technology. Future studies can be conducted for the capability of other technologies in the management of chronic diseases.
Pulmonary fibrosis in a dog as a sequela of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2? A case report.
BMC veterinary research. 2022;(1):111
BACKGROUND Interstitial lung disease is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by severe radiographic changes and clinicopathological findings. However, in the vast majority of cases, the cause remains unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION In the present study, we reported the clinical case of a 3 years old female Bull Terrier presented in October 2020 to the Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Department of the Turin Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a progressive pulmonary illness characterized by dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and a diffuse and severe pulmonary interstitial pattern at imaging investigations. Considering the clinical findings, the dog was included in a serological survey for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in companion animals, showing positive results. Due to the further clinical worsening, the owners opted for euthanasia. At necroscopy, dog showed severe and chronic bronchopneumonia compatible with a Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and with serological features linked to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS The comparison of these lesions with those reported in humans affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) supports the hypothesis that these findings may be attributable to the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog with breed predisposition to Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (CIPF), although direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigenic approaches remained unsolved.
Reduction of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic is related to increased neuropsychiatric symptoms in memory clinic patients.
Clinical medicine (London, England). 2022;(2):177-180
The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented restrictions on social contacts and mobility. Memory clinic patients were disproportionately affected when care was disrupted and routines were abruptly changed. This trial was designed as a pragmatic, prospective, observational study to evaluate the effects of lockdown on memory clinic patients. Outpatients were included when they returned in May to July 2020 for their first follow-up after the lockdown. Indicators of lockdown intensity and its effect on patients were recorded, patients and caregivers were interviewed, and neuropsychological tests were performed. We included 72 patients, most of them suffering from Alzheimer's dementia or mild cognitive impairment. The median time of isolation was 8 weeks and social contacts were significantly reduced from five to two per week (p<0.001). Light physical activity was significantly reduced (3.8 hours to 3 hours, p=0.016) during the lockdown, and this reduction was significantly correlated with higher scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (R -0.43, p>0.001). Fears regarding the pandemic were common and mostly related to the patients' health. Lockdown restrictions reduced physical activity in memory clinic patients which was associated with increased neuropsychiatric symptoms. Future restrictions should aim to mitigate the impacts on this vulnerable population.
Fit4Surgery for cancer patients during covid-19 lockdown - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2022
BACKGROUND Prehabilitation is a promising method to enhance postoperative recovery, especially in patients suffering from cancer. Particularly during times of social distancing, providing home-based programmes may have become a suitable solution to increase compliance and effectiveness. METHODS In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted including trials that investigated the effect of home-based prehabilitation (HBP) in patients undergoing surgery for cancer. The primary outcome was postoperative functional capacity (6 min walk test, 6MWT). Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications and compliance. RESULTS Five randomized controlled trials were included with 351 patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, oesophagogastric cancer, bladder cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Three studies presented results of significant progress after eight weeks. The meta-analysis showed a significant improvement of the 6MWT in the prehabilitation group compared to the control group preoperatively (MD 35.06; 95% CI 11.58 to 58.54; p = .003) and eight weeks postoperatively (MD 44.91; 95% CI 6.04 to 83.79; p = .02) compared to baseline. Compliance rate varied from 63% to 83% with no significant difference between prehabilitation and control groups. These data must be interpreted with caution because of a high amount of heterogeneity and small sample sizes. DISCUSSION In conclusion, HBP may enhance overall functional capacity of patients receiving oncological surgery compared to standard of care. This could be a promising alternative to hospital-based prehabilitation regarding the current pandemic and further digitalization in the future. In order to increase accessibility and effectiveness of prehabilitation, home-based solutions should be further investigated.
The autonomic aspects of the post-COVID19 syndrome.
Autoimmunity reviews. 2022;(5):103071
The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, responsible for the widespread COVID-19, led to one of the most rogue pandemics in modern time, yet the major effects of the pandemic may still be ahead of us. SARS-CoV-2 had been found to possess autoimmune properties. Close to 20 distinct autoantibodies which target GPCR of the nervous system and renin-angiotensin system-related molecules were found significantly associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19. The new on-set of more than 10 various autoimmune disorders were documented as well. Additionally, clinical presentations of persisted symptoms were triggered in numerous recently recovered COVID-19 patients, which led to the formulation of the novel term "post-COVID19 syndrome". Manifestations related to post-COVID-19 syndrome exist among approximately 50-80% of symptomatic COVID-19 patients who recovered, and among patients reported more than 50 different long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Many of the common symptoms of the post-COVID19 syndrome are not explained by the virus-related injury alone. Similarly to chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, autoimmune-mediated autonomic nervous system dysfunction may play a significant part in the pathogenesis of such symptoms, including chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, mood related disorders, and numerous more. Importantly, therapeutic options such as immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapy may favor some post-COVID19 patients, while plasmapheresis and IVIG could be considered in severe cases. Nevertheless, as physical exercise has been found to stabilize the autonomic nervous system, exercise therapy might be a safer and more effective remedy for the post-COVID19 syndrome.
Alzheimer's disease research progress in the Mediterranean region: The Alzheimer's Association International Conference Satellite Symposium.
Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 2022
As research and services in the Mediterranean region continue to increase, so do opportunities for global collaboration. To support such collaborations, the Alzheimer's Association was due to hold its seventh Alzheimer's Association International Conference Satellite Symposium in Athens, Greece in 2021. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the meeting was held virtually, which enabled attendees from around the world to hear about research efforts in Greece and the surrounding Mediterranean countries. Research updates spanned understanding the biology of, treatments for, and care of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD_ and other dementias. Researchers in the Mediterranean region have outlined the local epidemiology of AD and dementia, and have identified regional populations that may expedite genetic studies. Development of biomarkers is expected to aid early and accurate diagnosis. Numerous efforts have been made to develop culturally specific interventions to both reduce risk of dementia, and to improve quality of life for people living with dementia.
SARS-CoV-2 infection as possible downstream disease precipitator in autoantibody-positive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a case report.
Italian journal of pediatrics. 2022;(1):33
BACKGROUND SARS-CoV-2 causes lesions, in addition to lung, in endocrine organs such as the pancreas through ACE2 receptor. Recently the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 exposition and the incidence or evolution of clinical autoimmune diabetes has attracted the attention of diabetologists. CASE PRESENTATION We report the analysis of the clinical history of a child diagnosed for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) at the time a paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection occurred, followed by well-controlled metabolic status. As opposite to previous findings SARS-CoV2 did not cause ketosis and ketoacidosis. Polydipsia was reported a few months and weight loss 4 weeks before SARS- CoV-2 infection suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 could not be the trigger of Type 1 diabetes in this patient. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 in this patient was an unexpected event in the course of disease. We advance the hypothesis that the SARS-CoV-2 infection, even if paucisymptomatic could have acted in the present case report as a hypothetical downstream precipitating factor; whilst the inciting triggering event of the autoimmune disease, as confirmed by the presence of circulating autoantibodies, could have occurred even before, as generally assumed for this category of disorders. The precipitating mechanism could have been the acute interaction between virus and the ACE receptor on the beta cells, at the time that hyperglycemia and glycosuria were ascertained, and HbA1c levels confirmed a metabolic dysregulation over the previous 3 months in absence of ketoacidosis.