Body weight of individuals with obesity decreases after a 6-month high pasta or low pasta Mediterranean diet weight-loss intervention.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2020;(6):984-995
BACKGROUND & AIMS The effect of pasta consumption within a low-energy Mediterranean diet on body weight regulation has been scarcely explored. This paper investigates the effect of two Mediterranean diets, which differed for lower or higher pasta intake, on body weight change in individuals with obesity. METHODS & RESULTS Forty-nine volunteers finished a quasi-experimental 6-month two-parallel group dietary intervention. Participants were assigned to a low-energy high pasta (HP) or to a low-energy low Pasta (LP) group on the basis of their pasta intake (HP ≥ 5 or LP ≤ 3 times/week). Anthropometrics, blood pressure and heart rate were measured every month. Weight maintenance was checked at month 12. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA), food intake (24-h recall plus a 7-day carbohydrate record) and the perceived quality of life (36-item short-form health survey, SF-36) were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Blood samples were collected at baseline and month 6 to assess glucose and lipid metabolism. After 6-month intervention, body weight reduction was -10 ± 8% and -7 ± 4% in HP and LP diet, respectively, and it remained similar at month 12. Both dietary interventions improved anthropometric parameters, body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, but no significant differences were observed between treatment groups. No differences were observed for blood pressure and heart rate between treatments and among times. HP diet significantly improved perception of quality of life for the physical component. CONCLUSIONS Independent of pasta consumption frequency, low-energy Mediterranean diets were successful in improving anthropometrics, physiological parameters and dietary habits after a 6-month weight-loss intervention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03341650.
Dietary Glycemic Index and Load and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Assessment of Causal Relations.
Plain language summary
It is generally accepted that certain diet and lifestyle choices contribute to a person’s risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this meta-analysis, researchers set out to review previous studies and assess whether there is any evidence that the amount and type of carbohydrate (measured by Glycaemic Index (GI) and Glycaemic Load (GL)) in a person’s diet has a direct influence on their risk of developing T2D. The authors concluded with a high level of confidence that eating high GI and GL foods can lead to a higher risk of developing T2D. They suggest that nutrition advice that favours low GI and GL foods could produce significant cost savings for public healthcare.
While dietary factors are important modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D), the causal role of carbohydrate quality in nutrition remains controversial. Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) have been examined in relation to the risk of T2D in multiple prospective cohort studies. Previous meta-analyses indicate significant relations but consideration of causality has been minimal. Here, the results of our recent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies of 4 to 26-y follow-up are interpreted in the context of the nine Bradford-Hill criteria for causality, that is: (1) Strength of Association, (2) Consistency, (3) Specificity, (4) Temporality, (5) Biological Gradient, (6) Plausibility, (7) Experimental evidence, (8) Analogy, and (9) Coherence. These criteria necessitated referral to a body of literature wider than prospective cohort studies alone, especially in criteria 6 to 9. In this analysis, all nine of the Hill's criteria were met for GI and GL indicating that we can be confident of a role for GI and GL as causal factors contributing to incident T2D. In addition, neither dietary fiber nor cereal fiber nor wholegrain were found to be reliable or effective surrogate measures of GI or GL. Finally, our cost-benefit analysis suggests food and nutrition advice favors lower GI or GL and would produce significant potential cost savings in national healthcare budgets. The high confidence in causal associations for incident T2D is sufficient to consider inclusion of GI and GL in food and nutrient-based recommendations.
Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2006;(4):817-22
BACKGROUND Low postprandial blood glucose is associated with low risk of metabolic diseases. A meal's ability to diminish the glucose response to carbohydrates eaten during the following meal is known as the "second-meal effect" (SME). The reduced glycemia elicited by low-glycemic-index (LGI) foods consumed during the first meal has been suggested as the main mechanism for SME. However, LGI foods often increase colonic fermentation because of the presence of fiber and resistant starch. OBJECTIVE The objective was to study the SME of greater fermentation of high-glycemic-index (HGI) and LGI carbohydrates eaten during a previous meal. DESIGN Ten healthy volunteers ate 3 breakfast test meals consisting of sponge cakes made with rapidly digestible, nonfermentable amylopectin starch plus cellulose (HGI meal), amylopectin starch plus the fermentable disaccharide lactulose (HGI-Lac meal), or slowly digestible, partly fermentable amylose starch plus cellulose (LGI meal). Five hours later, subjects were fed the same standard lunch containing 93 g available carbohydrates. Blood was collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Breath hydrogen was measured as a marker of colonic fermentation. Postlunch gastric emptying was measured by using ultrasonography. RESULTS Both the HGI-Lac and LGI meals improved glucose tolerance at lunch. In the case of the HGI-Lac meal, this effect was concomitant with low NEFA concentrations and delayed gastric emptying. CONCLUSION Fermentable carbohydrates, independent of their effect on a food's glycemic index, have the potential to regulate postprandial responses to a second meal by reducing NEFA competition for glucose disposal and, to a minor extent, by affecting intestinal motility.
Characteristics of some wheat-based foods of the Italian diet in relation to their influence on postprandial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The British journal of nutrition. 2001;(1):33-40
The present study was aimed at evaluating in patients with type 2 diabetes: (1) the glycaemic response to four starchy foods based on wheat, typical of the Italian diet; (2) the importance of some food characteristics in relation to their effects on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen patients with type 2 diabetes (eleven men and six women) participated in the study. All patients consumed, in random order and on alternate days, 50 g available carbohydrate provided by 90 g white bread and, according to a randomised procedure, an equivalent amount of carbohydrate provided by one (n 8) or two (n 9) of three other different test foods (g): pizza 85, potato dumplings 165, hard toasted bread 60. Foods had a similar nutrient composition. Plasma glucose response, measured for 180 min, was significantly lower after the potato dumplings than after white bread at 90 (P < 0.05), 120 (P < 0.01), and 150 (P < 0.05) min. No difference was observed in postprandial plasma insulin response after the various test foods. The percentage of starch hydrolysed after 5 h in vitro hydrolysis with alpha-amylase was about 30 % lower for potato dumplings than for the other foods. However, no differences in the resistant starch content, the rate of diffusion of simple sugars added to a dialysis tube containing the food, and the viscosity of digesta were observed among the test foods. Scanning electron microscopy of potato dumplings showed a compact structure compatible with impaired accessibility of starch to digestive enzymes. In conclusion, carbohydrate-rich foods typical of the Italian diet which are often consumed as an alternative to pasta dishes are not equivalent in terms of metabolic impact in diabetic patients. Due to their low blood glucose response, potato dumplings represent a valid alternative to other starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Food structure plays an important role in determining starch accessibility to digestion, thus influencing the postprandial blood glucose response.
Digestibility of carbohydrates from rice-, oat- and wheat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in children.
European journal of clinical nutrition. 1994;(9):617-24
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of the presence and quality of dietary fibre in ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereals on completeness of carbohydrate digestion in children and on starch susceptibility to alpha-amylase in vitro. DESIGN A controlled intervention study. SUBJECTS Eight 3-8-year-old healthy children. INTERVENTIONS Completeness of digestion was evaluated by assessing the amount of carbohydrates apparently fermented into the colon using the breath-H2 technique after consumption in random order, of five breakfast tests containing boiled rice (either alone or supplemented with 3 g of lactulose) as reference food, or RTE cereals based on rice (low-fibre), wheat (high insoluble fibre) and oats (high-soluble fibre). The potential glycaemic impact of the products was estimated in vitro by assessing starch susceptibility to alpha-amylolysis using an enzymatic-dialysis method. RESULTS Compared to boiled rice and to rice-based RTE cereal, wheat- and oat-based RTE cereals both significantly (P < 0.05) increased the amount of apparently fermented carbohydrates (+1.1 +/- 1.7% of total breakfast carbohydrate fermented for rice, +5.6 +/- 0.9% for wheat and +9.4 +/- 3.7% for oats; mean +/- SEM), calculated using the excess H2 in breath after lactulose as standard. All products showed similar in vitro digestibility, resulting in estimated glycaemic indexes of 117.5 (24.0) for rice, and 105.7 (14.1) for oats-based, 128.4 (17.6) for wheat-based, and 129.8 (16.6) [mean 95% CI)] for rice-based RTE cereals. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that the presence of fibre in RTE breakfast cereals, in particular soluble fibre, increases colonic fermentation in children whereas it seems not to affect glucose availability.