Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Observational Cohort Study.
Alcohol consumption is a significant public health issue worldwide. The rat model and epidemiological studies have both reported conflicting results about the effects of alcohol on the kidneys. We aimed to explore the relationships between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease. Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health Insurance research database, and the National Deaths Dataset were used. Standardized in-person interviews were executed in 2001, 2005, and 2009 to obtain the demographic characteristics of study population. The participants were followed up until 2013. The primary outcome was new-onset chronic kidney disease. We analyzed 45,200 adults older than 18 years (50.8% men and 49.2% women), and the overall mean (SD) age was 42.73 (16.64) years. During the 8.5 (3.5) years of follow-up, new-onset chronic kidney disease was recognized in 1535 (5.5%), 292 (2.7%), and 317 (4.9%) non-drinking, social-drinking, and regular-drinking participants, respectively. The participants who were social and regular drinkers had a significantly decreased risk of chronic kidney disease incidence (social drinking: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.97; p = 0.018; regular-drinking: AHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98; p = 0.024), with baseline demographics and comorbidities adjusted. In conclusion, social and regular drinkers had decreased risk of chronic kidney disease when compared with non-drinkers.
Probiotic : Effective for Managing Childhood Diarrhea by Altering Gut Microbiota and Attenuating Fecal Inflammatory Markers.
Plain language summary
Acute diarrhoea caused by pathogens may induce gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines), bloody stool, or severe intra-abdominal infections that establish disease and increase the economic burden, especially among infantile and childhood populations. The aim of the study was to determine whether probiotics (Lactobacilluscasei) inhibited gastrointestinal infection and reduced the associated inﬂammatory response. The study is a prospective, randomized, case-controlled study which enrolled 81 children aged between 6 months and 6 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups (Lactobacilluscasei variety rhamnosus treatment and a no probiotic control). Study results indicate that probiotics can reduce the severity and duration of diarrhoea. Furthermore, probiotic colonisation improved bowel habits and reduced abdominal pain or colic and bloating. Authors conclude that the eﬃcacy of probiotic preparations for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea is related to individual bacteria strains. Thus, the population and modulation of intestinal gut/probiotic bacteria can be restored through the reduction of intestinal inﬂammatory reactions.
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and an economic burden for families. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of probiotics on clinical symptoms, intestinal microbiota, and inflammatory markers during childhood diarrhea. METHODS Children ( = 81) aged six months to six years (mean age 2.31 years) hospitalized for acute diarrhea were randomized to receive probiotics ( variety ; = 42) or no probiotics ( = 39) orally twice daily for seven days. Feces samples were also collected to evaluate microbial content using a traditional agar plate and next-generation sequencing. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, and calprotectin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared in different groups. Other clinical symptoms or signs, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloated abdomen, daily intake, appetite, and body weight were also assessed. RESULTS Data were collected from 81 individuals across three different time points. Total fecal IgA levels in fecal extracts of the probiotics group were higher than those in the control group, reaching statistical significance ( 0.05). Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were significantly downregulated in patients with probiotic variety (Lc) consumption compared to those of the control ( 0.05). Probiotic Lc administration may be beneficial for gut-microbiota modulation, as shown by the data collected at one week after enrollment. Counts of and species were elevated in stool culture of the probiotic group. Appetite and oral intake, body-weight gain, abdominal pain, bloating, as well as bowel habits (diarrhea) were much better in children receiving probiotics compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION Fecal IgA increased during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment; in contrast, fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were downregulated during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment. Probiotic Lc may be a useful supplement for application in children during acute diarrhea to reduce clinical severity and intestinal inflammatory reaction.
Neurohealth Properties of Mycelia Enriched with Erinacines.
Behavioural neurology. 2018;2018:5802634
Plain language summary
The individual compounds within culinary mushrooms has gained much interest and enthusiasm due to their potential health benefits when applied to specific illness or ailments. This particular paper reviews the effects of erinacine compound found in a particular mushroom named Hericium erinaceus (known as Lion’s Mane) and its health properties with regards to aging associated diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease, depression and Alzheimer’s disease. Animal studies reportedly show that erinacines stimulate the synthesis of nerve growth factor, which can prolongs the survival of neurons and reduce the consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. The studies discussed are encouraging to read and offer hope to those with a predisposition to or suffering from such diseases. However, more research in this field is required.
undefined: , an ideal culinary-medicinal mushroom, has become a well-established candidate in promoting positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing the nerve growth factor from its bioactive ingredient. Among its active compounds, only erinacine A has confirmed pharmacological actions in the central nervous system in rats. Hence, this review has summarized the available information on the neurohealth properties of mycelia enriched with erinacines, which may contribute to further research on the therapeutic roles of these mycelia. The safety of this mushroom has also been discussed. Although it has been difficult to extrapolate the studies to clinical situations, preclinical studies have shown that there can be improvements in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression if mycelia enriched with erinacines are included in daily meals.
Effects of a Community Care Station Program With Structured Exercise Intervention on Physical Performance and Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Prospective 2-Year Observational Study.
Journal of aging and physical activity. 2017;(4):596-603
The Taiwanese government has developed community care stations (CCSs) for community-based older adult care. We investigated the effects of a structured exercise intervention, applied at CCS for 6 months, on physical performance and balance in community-dwelling older adults, including a 2-year reassessment. Fifty-eight participants (aged 76.9 ± 6.3 years) participated in the study. The Elderly Mobility Scale, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Timed Up and Go (TUG), gait speed, functional reach, one-leg-stance (OLS), and flexibility were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 2 years. Compared with baseline, the participants improved significantly in the SPPB (0.93 points), TUG (1.94 s), gait speed (0.13 m/s), and right and left OLS (2.56 and 3.12 s) at 6 months. Furthermore, these significant effects, except for OLS, were maintained at the 2-year reassessment according to repeated-measures ANOVA (p < .01). Our preliminary data suggest that adding a structured exercise program can benefit older adults participating in Taiwanese CCSs.
Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.
Bilateral robotic priming before task-oriented approach in subacute stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Clinical rehabilitation. 2017;(2):225-233
OBJECTIVES To investigate the treatment effects of bilateral robotic priming combined with the task-oriented approach on motor impairment, disability, daily function, and quality of life in patients with subacute stroke. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial. SETTING Occupational therapy clinics in medical centers. SUBJECTS Thirty-one subacute stroke patients were recruited. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomly assigned to receive bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach (i.e., primed group) or to the task-oriented approach alone (i.e., unprimed group) for 90 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The primed group began with the bilateral priming technique by using a bimanual robot-aided device. MAIN MEASURES Motor impairments were assessed by the Fugal-Meyer Assessment, grip strength, and the Box and Block Test. Disability and daily function were measured by the modified Rankin Scale, the Functional Independence Measure, and actigraphy. Quality of life was examined by the Stroke Impact Scale. RESULTS The primed and unprimed groups improved significantly on most outcomes over time. The primed group demonstrated significantly better improvement on the Stroke Impact Scale strength subscale ( p = 0.012) and a trend for greater improvement on the modified Rankin Scale ( p = 0.065) than the unprimed group. CONCLUSION Bilateral priming combined with the task-oriented approach elicited more improvements in self-reported strength and disability degrees than the task-oriented approach by itself. Further large-scale research with at least 31 participants in each intervention group is suggested to confirm the study findings.
A Walk-and-Eat Intervention Improves Outcomes for Patients With Esophageal Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.
The oncologist. 2015;(10):1216-22
BACKGROUND Preserving functional walking capacity and nutritional status is important for patients with esophageal cancer, but no effective intervention is available, particularly during active treatment. METHODS This pilot randomized controlled trial tested the effects of a walk-and-eat intervention for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Participants with locally advanced esophageal cancer stage IIB or higher (n = 59) were randomly assigned to receive the walk-and-eat intervention (n = 30; nurse-supervised walking three times per week and weekly nutritional advice) or usual care (n = 29; control group) during 4-5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy. Primary endpoints were changes in distance on the 6-minute walk test, hand-grip strength, lean muscle mass, and body weight between initiation and completion of intervention. RESULTS Participants (mean age: 59.6 years) were mostly male (92.9%) with squamous cell carcinoma (96.4%). During chemoradiotherapy, participants who received the walk-and-eat intervention had 100-m less decline than controls in walk distance (adjusted p = .012), 3-kg less decrease in hand-grip strength (adjusted p = .002), and 2.7-kg less reduction in body weight (adjusted p < .001), regardless of age. The intervention group also had significantly lower rates of need for intravenous nutritional support and wheelchair use. CONCLUSION The nurse-led walk-and-eat intervention is feasible and effective to preserve functional walking capacity and nutritional status for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
Treadmill walking effects on grip strength in young men with Down syndrome.
Research in developmental disabilities. 2014;(2):288-93
This study was aimed at investigating the relation between grip strength and anthropometric factors and the impact of an aerobic exercise on grip strength in young men with Down syndrome (DS). This study was a pre-post design. Twelve males with DS were assigned to an exercise group, who walked using an incremental protocol on a treadmill for 20 min at aerobic levels. Eight additional persons with DS were assigned to an attentional control group, who watched a video. Measure of grip strength was tested pre- and post-interventions. The results showed positively significant relationship among grip strength and age (r=.74, p<.01), weight (r=.52, p=.02), body mass index (r=.61, p=.01) and waist circumference (r=.54, p=.02). In addition, Grip strength was slightly improved after exercise (p=.03) but decreased after control condition. The results showed that anthropometric factors, such as age, weight, body mass index and waist circumference, were positively correlated with grip strength in young men with DS. Further, improvement in grip strength can be found even after a single exercise session. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining an active lifestyle in persons with DS for performing activities of daily living.
FES for abnormal movement of upper limb during walking in post-stroke subjects.
Technology and health care : official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine. 2014;(5):751-8
BACKGROUND Hemiplegia can cause accidental falls, as the patients place their arms in front of their chests or next to the hips when they walk. This is due to limitations in the ability to swing their arms during walking. OBJECTIVE This study proposes a functional electrical stimulator approach in order to improve the foot drop and abnormal movement of the upper limbs during walking. The goal of this study is to verify the feasibility of improving the foot drop and arm swing problems of hemiplegic patients using electrical stimulators in a clinical trial. METHODS The present study utilizes a functional electrical stimulator found on the market. The stimulator is controlling the gait and arm swing of the patient while the patient is walking. It can help him or her restore regular gait cycles and arm swings. The FES device can also train the patient to walk safely and regain control of his or her arm swing. After the four-week training, the subjects had to walk 10 meters without the FES system. The step length, step time, and joint goniograms were recorded in order to determine whether there was any improvement. RESULTS After the four-week training was concluded, the three post-stroke patients showed an improvement in arm swing angle when walking. The improvement was found to be 7.16% in the first patient, 43.06% in the second, and 54.66% in the third. These results are all statistically significant. The t-test had a p-value 0.012 (p< 0.05), which demonstrated that the method used in the present study had the potential to significantly improve the arm swing of post-stroke patients. CONCLUSIONS The present study showed that a traditional foot drop functional electrical stimulator providing stimulation also to the patient's upper limbs, while being triggered by a foot switch under his or her heel, can help the patient to swing the arms and reduce the foot drop. The method has significant effect on traditional foot drop therapy. The subjects' high degree of acceptance and willingness to commit to long-term use showed that the method is indeed worthy of further research.
Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.
High altitude medicine & biology. 2014;(3):371-9
High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.