Phagocytic microglia and macrophages in brain injury and repair.
CNS neuroscience & therapeutics. 2022;(9):1279-1293
AIMS: Phagocytosis is the cellular digestion of extracellular particles, such as pathogens and dying cells, and is a key element in the evolution of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia and macrophages are the professional phagocytes of the CNS. By clearing toxic cellular debris and reshaping the extracellular matrix, microglia/macrophages help pilot the brain repair and functional recovery process. However, CNS resident and invading immune cells can also magnify tissue damage by igniting runaway inflammation and phagocytosing stressed-but viable-neurons. DISCUSSION Microglia/macrophages help mediate intercellular communication and react quickly to the "find-me" signals expressed by dead/dying neurons. The activated microglia/macrophages then migrate to the injury site to initiate the phagocytic process upon encountering "eat-me" signals on the surfaces of endangered cells. Thus, healthy cells attempt to avoid inappropriate engulfment by expressing "do not-eat-me" signals. Microglia/macrophages also have the capacity to phagocytose immune cells that invade the injured brain (e.g., neutrophils) and to regulate their pro-inflammatory properties. During brain recovery, microglia/macrophages engulf myelin debris, initiate synaptogenesis and neurogenesis, and sculpt a favorable extracellular matrix to support network rewiring, among other favorable roles. Here, we review the multilayered nature of phagocytotic microglia/macrophages, including the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern microglia/macrophage-induced phagocytosis in acute brain injury, and discuss strategies that tap into the therapeutic potential of this engulfment process. CONCLUSION Identification of biological targets that can temper neuroinflammation after brain injury without hindering the essential phagocytic functions of microglia/macrophages will expedite better medical management of the stroke recovery stage.
Comparative efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplements for the treatment of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Pharmacological research. 2022;:106345
OBJECTIVE We aimed at comparing the efficacy of intravenous and oral iron supplementations for the treatment of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases from inception to January 15, 2022. We included randomized controlled trials enrolling patients with HF who were treated for ID with intravenous iron supplements, oral iron supplements, or placebo. The primary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for heart failure. The secondary outcomes were evaluated through the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). RESULTS The network meta-analysis included sixteen studies. Compared to placebo/control groups, intravenous iron supplements did not decrease all-cause death (0.69, 0.39-1.23) or cardiovascular mortality (0.89, 0.66-1.20). After 12 weeks, a reduced hospitalization for heart failure was associated with the administration of intravenous iron supplementations (0.58, 0.34-0.97). The most significant improvements regarding 6MWT (44.44, 6.10-82.79) and KCCQ (5.96, 3.19-8.73) were observed with intravenous iron supplements. Oral iron supplements reduced hospitalization for heart failure (0.36, 0.14-0.96) and all-cause death (0.34, 0.12-0.95), but did not influence the 6MWT (29.74, -47.36 to 106.83) and KCCQ (0.10, -10.95 to 11.15). CONCLUSIONS Administering intravenous iron supplements for ID in patients with HF improves their exercise capacity and quality of life. In order to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure, the supplementation should be administered for more than 12 weeks. Although oral iron supplements did not improve exercise capacity and quality of life, they could reduce all-cause death and hospitalizations for heart failure.
Effect of mindfulness yoga on anxiety and depression in early breast cancer patients received adjuvant chemotherapy: a randomized clinical trial.
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 2022;(9):2549-2560
PURPOSE The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a mindfulness yoga treatment on emotional disorders, fatigue, pain, and health-related quality of life in early-stage breast cancer patients. METHODS The eligible 136 participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to the experimental group (mindfulness yoga + conventional care) and the control group (conventional care). The hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to assess anxiety and depression symptoms as the primary outcome. Secondary results comprised fatigue (RPFS-CV), pain (BPI-C), and health-related quality of life (FACT-B). Assessments were performed at baseline time, the 8th week, and the 20th week. RESULTS The Experimental group had a better prognosis in comparison with those in the control group, especially for anxiety [inter-group effect, T1: 1.18 (95% CI 0.20-2.17; P = 0.018)], depression [T1: 1.49 (95% CI 0.48-2.50; P = 0.004)] and health-related life quality [T1: - 6.34 (95% CI - 11.81 to - 0.87; P = 0.023)]. While fatigue [T1: 0.23 (95% CI - 0.24-0.69; P = 0.337); T2: 0.27 (95% CI - 0.16-0.71; P = 0.219)] and pain [T1: 1.11 (95% CI - 0.05-2.27; P = 0.060); T2: 0.68 (95% CI - 0.27-1.62; P = 0.159)] were not different between the two groups. CONCLUSION In patients with early-stage breast cancer who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, treatment with mindfulness yoga is as effective as conventional care in improving physical function. Along with other treatments, mindfulness yoga may help alleviate anxiety and depression to improve the overall physical and mental health and quality of life of early-stage breast cancer patients. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Registration number: ChiCTR2100052842, Reg. Date: 2021/11/6.
Lifestyle and metabolic factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Mendelian randomization study.
European journal of epidemiology. 2022;(7):723-733
The risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have not been clearly identified. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to explore this. Independent genetic variants strongly associated with 5 lifestyle and 9 metabolic factors were selected as instrumental variables from corresponding genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary-level data for NAFLD were obtained from a GWAS meta-analysis of 8434 cases and 770,180 non-cases (discovery dataset) and another GWAS meta-analysis of 1483 cases and 17,781 non-cases (replication dataset). Univariable and multivariable MR analyses were performed. There were associations with NAFLD for lifetime smoking index (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.93 per SD-increase), body mass index (BMI, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43 per SD-increase), waist circumference (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.48-2.24 per SD-increase), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.15-1.27 per unit increase in log-transformed odds), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.07-1.26 per 10 mmHg increase), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90 per SD-increase), and triglycerides (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.33 per SD-increase). The associations for type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, but not for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained strong after adjusting for genetically-predicted BMI. Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes mediated 51.4% (95% CI 13.4-89.3%) of the BMI-effects on NAFLD risk. There were suggestive inverse associations of genetically-predicted alcohol, coffee, and caffeine consumption, and vigorous physical activity with NAFLD risk. This study identified several lifestyle and metabolic factors that may be causally implicated in NAFLD.
Application of Nursing Intervention Based on Intelligent Grip Strength System in Patients with Tumor PICC: A Case-Control Study on Promoting Functional Exercise and Quality of Life.
Computational and mathematical methods in medicine. 2022;:8016567
Objective: A case-control study was conducted to elucidate the impact of application of nursing intervention based on intelligent grip strength system in patients with tumor peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) on promoting functional exercise and life quality. Methods: A total of 100 patients with tumor PICC treated in our hospital from April 2019 to April 2021 were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned into control group and study group. The control group received routine nursing, and the study group received nursing intervention based on intelligent grip strength system. Results: First of all, we compared the nursing satisfaction between the two groups: the study group was very satisfied in 43 cases, satisfactory in 6 cases, and general in 1 case, and the satisfaction rate was 100.00%, while in the control group, 29 cases were very satisfied, 10 cases were satisfied, 6 cases were general, and 5 cases were dissatisfied. The satisfaction rate was 90.00%. As such, the nursing satisfaction of the study group was higher compared to the control (P < 0.05). Secondly, we compared the average blood flow velocity per unit time of axillary vein at different moments. Before catheterization, there exited no significant difference (P > 0.05). The average blood flow velocity per unit time of axillary vein in the study group was faster compared to the control at different time points (P < 0.05). In terms of the average blood flow velocity per unit time of axillary vein at different time points between the two groups, there exited no significant difference before catheterization (P > 0.05). But 14 and 28 days after catheterization, the average blood flow velocity per unit time of axillary vein in the study group was better when compared to the control (P < 0.05). Comparing the incidence of catheter-related complications, the incidence of catheter-related complications such as redness and swelling, phlebitis, catheter occlusion, and catheter slip in the study group (12.00%) was lower compared to the control (60.00%) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in vascular diameter, peak blood flow velocity, and vascular pressure between the two groups before nursing (P > 0.05), but after nursing, the vascular diameter and peak blood flow velocity group were higher, and the vascular pressure was lower in the study (P < 0.05). Comparing the scores of functional exercise compliance, the scores of grip exercise compliance, exercise monitoring compliance, active help seeking compliance, exercise attention compliance, and the total score of compliance in the study group were higher compared to the control (P < 0.05). Finally, we compared the scores of life quality. Before nursing, there exhibited no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The scores of physiological function, psychological function, social function, and health self-cognition in the study group were lower when compared to control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The utilization of intelligent grip strength system can improve the functional exercise compliance of PICC patients, effectively facilitate the venous blood circulation of upper limbs, and strengthen the life quality, as well as reduce the incidence of catheter-related thrombosis. However, more multicenter, large sample, randomized controlled studies should be carried out to explore the impact of intelligent grip strength system on the long-term effect of functional exercise in patients with PICC.
Bone Tissue Engineering in the Treatment of Bone Defects.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;(7)
Bones play an important role in maintaining exercise and protecting organs. Bone defect, as a common orthopedic disease in clinics, can cause tremendous damage with long treatment cycles. Therefore, the treatment of bone defect remains as one of the main challenges in clinical practice. Today, with increased incidence of bone disease in the aging population, demand for bone repair material is high. At present, the method of clinical treatment for bone defects including non-invasive therapy and invasive therapy. Surgical treatment is the most effective way to treat bone defects, such as using bone grafts, Masquelet technique, Ilizarov technique etc. In recent years, the rapid development of tissue engineering technology provides a new treatment strategy for bone repair. This review paper introduces the current situation and challenges of clinical treatment of bone defect repair in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of bone tissue engineering scaffolds are comprehensively discussed from the aspect of material, preparation technology, and function of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. This paper also summarizes the 3D printing technology based on computer technology, aiming at designing personalized artificial scaffolds that can accurately fit bone defects.
Implementation of perioperative breathing exercises and its effect on postoperative pulmonary complications and long-term prognosis in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: A randomized controlled trial.
Clinical rehabilitation. 2022;(9):1229-1243
OBJECTIVE This study was to investigate the impact of breathing exercises on recovery in elderly patients receiving laparoscopic colorectal surgery. DESIGN A prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING University hospital. SUBJECT A total of 264 elder patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery participated in this study. INTERVENTION Patients in intervention group received respiratory-related exercises based on standardized enhanced recovery after surgery strategies from admission to 90 days after surgery. The control group received perioperative standardized enhanced recovery after surgery strategies without formatted breathing exercises. MAIN MEASURES The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The secondary outcomes included 6-minute walking distance, surgery-related complications, length of stay, mortality postoperatively, and hospitalization costs. RESULTS Completion rate of breathing exercise in intervention group was over 80% till 90 days postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was lower in breathing exercises group (17/132 [12.9%] vs. 43/132 [32.6%], p < 0.001). The mean value of 6-minute walking distance increased more in intervention group compared with baseline values preoperatively (44.2 ± 4.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.2, p < 0.001). On 90 days postoperatively, the mean value of 6-minute walking distance in breathing exercises group increased by 18.8 m compared with its baseline (557.0 ± 133.5 vs. 538.2 ± 112.7, p = 0.022), while that of control group decreased by 53.2 m from baseline (481.9 ± 102.5 vs. 535.1 ± 123.4, p < 0.001). Patients who received breathing exercises had shorter length of stay and lower hospitalization costs (p < 0.050). CONCLUSIONS Perioperative breathing exercises helped prevent postoperative pulmonary complications and improve long-term prognosis in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
Anorexia nervosa and gut microbiome: implications for weight change and novel treatments.
Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2022;(4):321-332
INTRODUCTION Host-microbiota interactions may be involved in many physical and psychological functions ranging from the digestion of food, maintenance of immune homeostasis, to the regulation of mood and cognition. Microbiome dysbiosis has been consistently described in many diseases. The pathogenesis and weight regulation mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN) also seem to be implicated in the dynamic bidirectional adjustment of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. This review aims at elucidating this relationship. AREA COVERED This review starts with a description of pathogenic gut-brain pathways. Next, we focus on the latest research on the associations between gut microbiota and weight change in the condition of AN. The strategies to alter the intestinal microbiome for the treatment of this disorder are discussed, including dietary, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. EXPERT OPINION Gut microbiome is inextricably linked to AN. It may regulate weight gain in the process of refeeding via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, while the specific mechanism has yet to be clearly established. In the future, a better understanding of gut microbiome could have implications for developing microbiome-based prevention, diagnostics and therapies.
Medical imaging for plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of foot and ankle research. 2022;(1):4
BACKGROUND Medical imaging can be used to assist with the diagnosis of plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to synthesise medical imaging features associated with plantar heel pain. METHODS This systematic review and meta-analysis conducted searches in MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception to 12th February 2021. Peer-reviewed articles of cross-sectional observational studies written in English that compared medical imaging findings in adult participants with plantar heel pain to control participants without plantar heel pain were included. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted where appropriate to account for studies that used unblinded assessors. RESULTS Forty-two studies (2928 participants) were identified and included in analyses. Only 21% of studies were rated 'good' on quality assessment. Imaging features associated with plantar heel pain included a thickened plantar fascia (on ultrasound and MRI), abnormalities of the plantar fascia (on ultrasound and MRI), abnormalities of adjacent tissue such as a thickened loaded plantar heel fat pad (on ultrasound), and a plantar calcaneal spur (on x-ray). In addition, there is some evidence from more than one study that there is increased hyperaemia within the fascia (on power Doppler ultrasound) and abnormalities of bone in the calcaneus (increased uptake on technetium-99 m bone scan and bone marrow oedema on MRI). CONCLUSIONS People with plantar heel pain are more likely to have a thickened plantar fascia, abnormal plantar fascia tissue, a thicker loaded plantar heel fat pad, and a plantar calcaneal spur. In addition, there is some evidence of hyperaemia within the plantar fascia and abnormalities of the calcaneus. Whilst these medical imaging features may aid with diagnosis, additional high-quality studies investigating medical imaging findings for some of these imaging features would be worthwhile to improve the precision of these findings and determine their clinical relevance.
Adjustable Intragastric Balloon Leads to Significant Improvement in Obesity-Related Lipidome and Fecal Microbiome Profiles: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Clinical and translational gastroenterology. 2022;(7):e00508
INTRODUCTION Intragastric balloons (IGBs) are a safe and effective treatment for obesity. However, limited knowledge exists on the underlying biological changes with IGB placement. METHODS This single-institution study was part of an adjustable IGB randomized controlled trial. Subjects with obesity were randomized in a 2 is to 1 ratio to 32 weeks of IGB with diet/exercise counseling (n = 8) vs counseling alone (controls, n = 4). Diet/exercise counseling was continued for 24 weeks post-IGB removal to assess weight maintenance. We used mass spectrometry for nontargeted plasma lipidomics analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile the fecal microbiome. RESULTS Subjects with IGBs lost 15.5% of their body weight at 32 weeks vs 2.59% for controls (P < 0.05). Maintenance of a 10.5% weight loss occurred post-IGB explant. IGB placement, followed by weight maintenance, led to a -378.9 μM/L reduction in serum free fatty acids compared with pre-IGB (95% confidence interval: 612.9, -145.0). This reduction was mainly in saturated, mono, and omega-6 fatty acids when compared with pre-IGB. Polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines also increased after IGB placement (difference of 27 μM/L; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 52.8). Compared with controls, saturated and omega-6 free fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) were reduced after IGB placement. The fecal microbiota changed post-IGB placement and weight maintenance vs pre-IGB (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed a possible trend toward reduced Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes post-IGB and counseling, a change that was not conclusively different from counseling alone. DISCUSSION IGB treatment is associated with an altered fecal microbiome profile and may have a better effect on obesity-related lipidome than counseling alone.