The patient-generated subjective global assessment is a promising screening tool for cancer cachexia.
BMJ supportive & palliative care. 2022;(e1):e39-e46
BACKGROUND Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome characterised by a loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite its clinical importance, there is a lack of simple tools to screen patients for cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a screening tool for cancer cachexia. METHODS This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Cancer cachexia was diagnosed when there was weight loss ≥5% during the past 12 months and at least three of the five following conditions were present: decreased muscle strength, fatigue, anorexia, low Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI) and abnormal laboratory findings. A quadratic discriminant analysis was conducted for the ability of PG-SGA to predict cachexia. RESULTS A total of 4231 patients with cancer were included in this analysis, and 351 patients (8.3%) were diagnosed as having cachexia. The highest incidence of cachexia was found among patients with pancreatic cancer (32.5%), oesophageal cancer (21.5%) and gastric cancer (17.9%). Compared with patients without cachexia, patients with cachexia had a lower body mass index, FFMI, hand grip strength, total protein, prealbumin, albumin, haemoglobin and Karnofsky performance status (p<0.05), while they had a higher C reactive protein level and PG-SGA Score (4.71±3.71 vs 10.87±4.84, p<0.05). The best cut-off value for PG-SGA was 6.5, with 79.8% of sensitivity and 72.3% specificity for cachexia, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.846 (95% CI 0.826 to 0.866, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS PG-SGA is a highly specific tool that can be used to screen patients for cancer cachexia.
Case Report: A Chinese Family of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Splicing Mutation in the FLNC Gene.
Frontiers in genetics. 2022;:894791
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of primary cardiomyopathy with genetic etiology, and it carries a high risk of diastolic dysfunction, heart failure, and malignant arrhythmias. We reported the first familial HCM in China, caused by a novel FLNC splicing mutation. We performed duo exome sequencing (ES) to examine the genome of the proband and his mother. For 10 days, a 15-year-old boy was presented to our hospital due to non-exercise-associated chest tightness and asthma. He was diagnosed with HCM [end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness was about 18 mm by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)]. His mother and sister performed TTE to screen familial cardiomyopathy, which revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy only in the proband's mother. In ES of the mother-son duo, we identified a novel heterozygous mutation of the FLNC gene (chr7:128492808, NM_001127487, c.5905+2T>C, rs1808874360) as the candidate cause of autosomal dominant HCM. Sanger sequencing confirmed this novel mutation in the proband and his mother but absent in the proband's sister. The potential impact of the novel mutation was predicted by MutationTaster, dbscSNV_ADA_SCORE, dbscSNV_RF_SCORE, CADD_phred, PhyloP20way_mammalian, PhyloP100way_vertebrate, SiPhy_29way_logOdds, and GERP++_RS software. After the administration of furosemide, spironolactone, and metoprolol, the proband's heart function was improved, and symptoms were alleviated. We presented the first familial HCM caused by a novel FLNC splicing mutation via exome sequencing in China. Therefore, it is necessary that familial screening for patients with HCM should be performed for the early detection of HCM intervention in malignant cardiac events in advance and block genes.
The Emerging Roles of Human Gut Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Cancer.
Frontiers in immunology. 2022;:915047
The gut microbiota is composed of a large number of microorganisms with a complex structure. It participates in the decomposition, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; promotes the development of the immune system; inhibits the colonization of pathogens; and thus modulates human health. In particular, the relationship between gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tumor progression has attracted widespread concern. It was found that the gut microbiota can influence gastrointestinal tumor progression in independent ways. Here, we focused on the distribution of gut microbiota in gastrointestinal tumors and further elaborated on the impact of gut microbiota metabolites, especially short-chain fatty acids, on colorectal cancer progression. Additionally, the effects of gut microbiota on gastrointestinal tumor therapy are outlined. Finally, we put forward the possible problems in gut microbiota and the gastrointestinal oncology field and the efforts we need to make.
The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis Symptoms and Structural Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
The Journal of arthroplasty. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) usage in orthopedics continues to rise, despite guidelines suggesting non-superiority to comparative cohorts. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on PRP efficacy using two clinical assessments: (1) Visual Analog Scale and (2) Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. We assessed consistency and clinical relevancy by determining study heterogeneity (eg, sample sizes, ages, body mass index, arthritic severities, etc.). Comparative cohorts were: (A) hyaluronic acid (HA); (B) corticosteroid (CS); (C) normal saline (NS); and (D) exercise therapy. We performed sub-analyses of structural changes assessed on ultrasound, radiograph, or magnetic resonance imaging . METHODS We utilized PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases up to December 1, 2021, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic-Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty-four studies met criteria, with comparisons to: HA (n = 11); CS (n = 6); NS (n = 5); and exercise therapy (n = 3). Seven studies assessed structural changes. Evaluations utilized a methodological scoring system. I2 statistics and forest plots pooled analyses and delineated study results. RESULTS PRP led to Visual Analog Scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index improvements in most studies when compared to HA, CS, and NS (P ≤ .05). Comparison to exercise therapy resulted in inconclusive findings (P ≥ .05). However, substantial heterogeneity (I2 ≥ 76%) was reported due to study variability. No differences were found when assessing structural changes or cartilage thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (standardized mean difference -0.01 [-0.19, 0.18], P = .91). CONCLUSIONS PRP may be associated with pain and functional improvements but was not clinically relevant (inconsistent study- and patient-metrics). In addition, PRP did not confer superiority when assessing knee-related structural changes.
Physical Exercise Modalities for the Management of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2022;(5):698-710
ABSTRACT Different physical exercise modalities have been widely studied in patients having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) but with variably reported findings. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether the efficacy of physical activity in the management of HFpEF is related to exercise modalities. PubMed and Embase were searched up to July 2021. The eligible studies included randomized controlled trials that identified effects of physical exercise on patients with HFpEF. Sixteen studies were included to evaluate the efficiency of physical exercise in HFpEF. A pooled analysis showed that exercise training significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilatory anaerobic threshold, distance covered in the 6-minute walking test, the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocities, the Short Form 36 physical component score, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire total score. However, the changes in other echocardiographic parameters including the ratio of peak early to late diastolic mitral inflow velocities, early diastolic mitral annular velocity, and left atrial volume index were not significant. Both high-intensity and moderate-intensity training significantly improved exercise capacity (as defined by peak VO2), with moderate-intensity exercise having a superior effect. Furthermore, exercise-induced improvement in peak VO2 was partially correlated with exercise duration. Physical exercise could substantially improve exercise capacity, quality of life, and some indicators of cardiac diastolic function in patients with HFpEF. A protocol of moderate-intensity exercise training lasting a longer duration might be more beneficial compared with high-intensity training for patients with HFpEF.
The efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training on complications and mortality after lung cancer resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Translational cancer research. 2022;(5):1321-1329
Background: The efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training for patients after lung cancer resection has been controversial. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation on the incidence of complications and mortality in patients after lung cancer resection. Methods: Search English databases PubMed, EMBASE, Medline to obtain literature. The literature compared the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training intervention or not on the efficacy of patients after lung cancer resection, and the outcomes included postoperative complications and mortality. The quality of the included literature was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias assessment work. The chi-square test was used to test for heterogeneity. When there is heterogeneity, a random effect model is used; when there is no heterogeneity, a fixed effect model is used. Results: A total of 9 prospective clinical studies (comprising 1,338 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. Among the patients, there were 571 cases in the rehabilitation group and 767 cases in the control group. The incidence of postoperative complications in the rehabilitation group was lower than that in the control group. The odds ratio (OR) value was 0.66 and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.47-0.94 (P=0.02). There was no heterogeneity among studies and no publication bias. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in the rehabilitation group was lower than that in the control group, OR =0.33 (95% CI: 0.22-0.50) (P<0.00001). There was no heterogeneity among studies and no publication bias. There was no significant difference in postoperative mortality between the 2 groups (OR =0.77; 95% CI: 0.26-2.30; P=0.65). There was no heterogeneity among studies and no publication bias. Discussion: Implementing pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduced postoperative complications and the risk of pulmonary complications in lung cancer patients, but had no significant effect on mortality. Pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training is recommended for patients undergoing lung cancer resection.
Efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide in adults with overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis.
PURPOSE This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide among adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS We searched multiple electronic databases for randomized controlled trials that compared once-weekly semaglutide versus placebo in adults with overweight or obesity. The primary outcomes were the percentage change and absolute change in body weight. Secondary outcomes included achievement of categorical weight loss targets (at least 5, 10, 15, or 20%), cardiometabolic risk profiles, and health-related quality of life. RESULTS This meta-analysis included a total of four trials with 3447 patients. Once-weekly semaglutide was superior to placebo in terms of the percentage change and absolute change in body weight. Compared with placebo, once-weekly semaglutide also led to significant increases in the proportions of achievement of categorical weight reduction targets. Moreover, once-weekly semaglutide induced superior reductions in waist circumference and body-mass index compared with placebo. Furthermore, the effect on improving other cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life was more pronounced for once-weekly semaglutide relative to placebo. CONCLUSION Among adults with overweight or obesity, once-weekly semaglutide could result in clinically meaningful weight loss, which was a promising therapy for treating overweight or obesity.
Systematic review and meta-analysis on the incidence of delirium in intensive care unit inpatients after cognitive exercise intervention.
Annals of palliative medicine. 2022;(2):663-672
BACKGROUND The incidence of delirium in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is relatively high. Current research results on the effect of cognitive exercise on the incidence of delirium in ICU inpatients are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed on the impact of cognitive exercise on the incidence of delirium in ICU inpatients to provide an evidence-based reference for the clinical prevention of delirium. METHODS Articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine Disc (CBMD), Wanfang Database, and Western Biomedical Journal Database. The search strategy and search terms for Chinese and English databases were as follows: cognitive exercises or activity or functional exercise or rehabilitation or active intervention or gradual training or physical therapy or physical therapy, delirium, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) or randomization. Two researchers were required to independently screen the articles, extract data, and repeatedly assess the risk of bias for the included articles. RESULTS A total of 7 studies were included. The incidence of delirium was tested for heterogeneity, which showed that I2=94%>50% and P<0.00001, indicating heterogeneity among studies. There was no significant difference between the treatment group and the routine group [Z=1.28, odds ratio (OR) =0.43, 95% confidential interval (CI): 0.12-1.58, P =0.20]. The duration of delirium in treatment group and routine group was significantly different [Z=3.24, mean difference (MD) =-1.99, 95% CI: -3.20, -0.79, P=0.001]. The heterogeneity test was conducted for the length of hospitalization, showing that Chi-squared test (Chi2) =2.16, degree of freedom (df) =4, I2=0%<50%, and P=0.71, indicating that the heterogeneity of each study group was acceptable. The difference between the treatment group and the routine group was statistically significant (Z=10.84, MD =-2.10, 95% CI: -2.48, -1.72, P<0.00001). DISCUSSION Meta-analysis results confirmed that cognitive exercises can reduce the incidence and duration of delirium in ICU inpatients, and shorten the length of hospitalization.
Effects of the original Gymnastics for Pregnant Women program on glycaemic control and delivery outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.
International journal of nursing studies. 2022;:104271
BACKGROUND Gestational diabetes mellitus affects millions of pregnant women. Lifestyle intervention is recommended as the first-line treatment, in which exercise plays an important role. Effective and safe exercise is required to facilitate glycaemic control and improve delivery outcomes. OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of the original Gymnastics for Pregnant Women program for glycaemic control and delivery outcomes improvement in gestational diabetes mellitus women. DESIGN The study was a two-arm parallel randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING The study was conducted in a tertiary specialized maternity hospital in Hangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS Totally 131 eligible pregnant women were enrolled from June to December 2020. METHODS Participants were randomly allocated to the control group (conventional intervention) or experimental group that engaged in the original Gymnastics for Pregnant Women program. The primary outcomes included glycaemic control during pregnancy and postpartum. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, maternal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS Participants showed a significant improvement in glycaemic control after engaging in the intervention for 2 weeks; the improvement was most significant in terms of the 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The fasting blood glucose and 2-h postprandial plasma glucose data indicated a higher glycaemic control rate in the experimental than control group (86.16% vs. 66.67%, P = 0.008; and 84.62% vs. 36.36% [6.09 ± 0.79 vs. 6.96 ± 1.06 mmol/L], P < 0.001, respectively). After delivery, the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test results indicated better glycaemic control in the experimental than control group (75.44% vs. 57.41% [6.93 ± 1.44 vs. 7.79 ± 2.03 mmol/L], P = 0.047). Additionally, the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test in the experimental group with reasonable exercise frequency (≥10 times per week) had the best glucose level (6.81 ± 1.30 mmol/L), followed by the experimental group with a lower exercise frequency (<10 times per week) (7.35 ± 1.83 mmol/L) and the control group (7.79 ± 2.03 mmol/L). No statistical differences in maternal or neonatal outcomes were observed between the control and experimental groups (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no adverse events in the experimental group; however, in the control group, two cases experienced at least one hypoglycaemic episode and two cases received insulin during the study period. CONCLUSIONS The original Gymnastics for Pregnant Women was associated with greater improvements in blood glucose levels during pregnancy and postpartum compared with a conventional intervention for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. REGISTRATION ChiCTR2000033963 (2020-06-22). TWEETABLE ABSTRACT The original Gymnastics for Pregnant Women program improves glycaemic control in GDM women but does not affect delivery outcomes.
The benefit of exercise rehabilitation guided by 6-minute walk test on lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective randomized controlled study.
BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2022;(1):177
BACKGROUND Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been taken as a biomarker of inflammation in patients with acute coronary diseases. Regular exercise rehabilitation could attenuate inflammation and promote the rehabilitation of coronary heart disease (CHD). The level of Lp-PLA2 is negatively correlated with 6-min walk test (6-MWT). The exercise prescription of appropriate intensity is the basis of exercise rehabilitation. 6-MWT is associated with maximal oxygen consumption, and can be used to determine the intensity of exercise prescription guiding patients how to do exercise rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to observe the benefit of 6-MWT guided exercise rehabilitation on the level of Lp-PLA2 in patients with CHD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS We prospectively, consecutively enrolled 100 patients between Dec 2018 and Dec 2020 in the fourth ward of the Department of Cardiology, Yuebei People's Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University. Eligible patients were 1:1 divided into Group A, with no exercise rehabilitation, and Group B, with regular exercise rehabilitation, using random number table method of simple randomization allocation. Clinical data such as general information, the profile of lipids and the level of Lp-PLA2 were collected at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences of the percentages of gender, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the profile of lipids and level of Lp-PLA2 between the groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The level of Lp-PLA2 decreased at 12-week follow-up, moreover, the decline of the Lp-PLA2 level in Group B was more significant than that in Group A (t = 2.875, P = 0.005). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that exercise rehabilitation was independently correlated with the level of Lp-PLA2 (β' = - 0.258, t = - 2.542, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION Exercise rehabilitation for 12 weeks guided by 6-MWT can further reduce the level of LP-PLA2 in patients with CHD undergoing PCI. Trial registration This trial was registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100048124, registered 3 July 2021- Retrospectively registered. The study protocol adheres to the CONSORT guidelines.