Probiotic : Effective for Managing Childhood Diarrhea by Altering Gut Microbiota and Attenuating Fecal Inflammatory Markers.
Plain language summary
Acute diarrhoea caused by pathogens may induce gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines), bloody stool, or severe intra-abdominal infections that establish disease and increase the economic burden, especially among infantile and childhood populations. The aim of the study was to determine whether probiotics (Lactobacilluscasei) inhibited gastrointestinal infection and reduced the associated inﬂammatory response. The study is a prospective, randomized, case-controlled study which enrolled 81 children aged between 6 months and 6 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups (Lactobacilluscasei variety rhamnosus treatment and a no probiotic control). Study results indicate that probiotics can reduce the severity and duration of diarrhoea. Furthermore, probiotic colonisation improved bowel habits and reduced abdominal pain or colic and bloating. Authors conclude that the eﬃcacy of probiotic preparations for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea is related to individual bacteria strains. Thus, the population and modulation of intestinal gut/probiotic bacteria can be restored through the reduction of intestinal inﬂammatory reactions.
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and an economic burden for families. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of probiotics on clinical symptoms, intestinal microbiota, and inflammatory markers during childhood diarrhea. METHODS Children ( = 81) aged six months to six years (mean age 2.31 years) hospitalized for acute diarrhea were randomized to receive probiotics ( variety ; = 42) or no probiotics ( = 39) orally twice daily for seven days. Feces samples were also collected to evaluate microbial content using a traditional agar plate and next-generation sequencing. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, and calprotectin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared in different groups. Other clinical symptoms or signs, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloated abdomen, daily intake, appetite, and body weight were also assessed. RESULTS Data were collected from 81 individuals across three different time points. Total fecal IgA levels in fecal extracts of the probiotics group were higher than those in the control group, reaching statistical significance ( 0.05). Concentrations of fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were significantly downregulated in patients with probiotic variety (Lc) consumption compared to those of the control ( 0.05). Probiotic Lc administration may be beneficial for gut-microbiota modulation, as shown by the data collected at one week after enrollment. Counts of and species were elevated in stool culture of the probiotic group. Appetite and oral intake, body-weight gain, abdominal pain, bloating, as well as bowel habits (diarrhea) were much better in children receiving probiotics compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION Fecal IgA increased during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment; in contrast, fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin were downregulated during acute diarrhea under Lc treatment. Probiotic Lc may be a useful supplement for application in children during acute diarrhea to reduce clinical severity and intestinal inflammatory reaction.
The Influence of Pre-Exercise Glucose versus Fructose Ingestion on Subsequent Postprandial Lipemia.
Ingestion of low glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrate (CHO) before exercise induced less insulin response and higher fat oxidation than that of high GI (HGI) CHO during subsequent exercise. However, the effect on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate ingestion of CHO drinks with different GI using fructose and glucose before endurance exercise on the subsequent postprandial lipid profile. Eight healthy active males completed two experimental trials in randomized double-blind cross-over design. All participants ingested 500 mL CHO (75 g) solution either fructose (F) or glucose (G) before running on the treadmill at 60% VO₂max for 1 h. Participants were asked to take an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) immediately after the exercise. Blood samples were obtained for plasma and serum analysis. The F trial was significantly lower than the G trial in TG total area under the curve (AUC; 9.97 ± 3.64 vs. 10.91 ± 3.56 mmol × 6 h/L; p = 0.033) and incremental AUC (6.57 ± 2.46 vs. 7.14 ± 2.64 mmol/L × 6 h, p = 0.004). The current data suggested that a pre-exercise fructose drink showed a lower postprandial lipemia than a glucose drink after the subsequent high-fat meal.
High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Increases Fat Oxidation Rate and Reduces Postprandial Triglyceride Concentrations.
(1) Background: This study investigated the effect of acute barehanded whole body high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) and moderate intensity and continuous exercise (MICE) at the same quantity of energy expenditure on postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. (2) Methods: Nine healthy males completed three trials (HIIE, MICE and control (CON)) in a random order separated by at least 14 days. After each intervention, the participants rested for 12 h and consumed a high-fat test meal on the next day. The blood samples and respiratory exchange ratio were observed in the fasted state and for 4 h after consuming the test meal. (3) Results: The HIIE had a significantly higher area under the curve of postprandial fat oxidation rate than MICE (p = 0.027) and CON (p = 0.035) and exhibited significantly lower postprandial TG concentration than the MICE and CON at 2 and 4 h after the test meal. Moreover, the HIIE displayed a higher postprandial TG concentration area under the curve than MICE (p = 0.013) and CON (p = 0.048). (4) Conclusions: The present study concluded that acute barehanded whole body HIIE could significantly lower postprandial TG concentrations. It possibly can induce a rise in the postprandial fat oxidation rate.
A Single Bout of Exercise Reduces Postprandial Lipemia but Has No Delayed Effect on Hemorheological Variables.
The Chinese journal of physiology. 2018;(3):181-187
High plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration in fasting state could cause hemorheological abnormality, thus increasing the incidence of metabolic diseases. Exercise has been reported to effectively reduce postprandial TG response. This study aimed to investigate whether a single bout of pre-prandial exercise can affect lipemia and hemorheological variables after a high-fat meal. Nine healthy young male subjects completed two experimental trials. The subjects walked for 1 h at 50% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O₂max) (the exercise, EX trial), or rested (the control, CON trial). In the next morning, the subjects consumed a high-fat meal, and the postprandial lipemia and hemorheological responses were monitored for 6 h. The results showed that postprandial plasma TG concentrations were significantly lower in the EX trial compared to the CON trial. The postprandial low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentration declined in the first 2 h and then gradually returned to the baseline level in both trials. The postprandial blood viscosity also decreased in the CON trial. There was no significant difference in postprandial blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformation index and aggregation degree between the trials. There was no significant correlation between plasma TG concentration and blood viscosity. In conclusion, brisk walking effectively reduced postprandial TG concentration, but has no significant impact on postprandial blood viscosity, RBC deformation index and RBC aggregation index.
Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Health and quality of life outcomes. 2017;15(1):168
Plain language summary
Background: Based on data from the three of the Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT), which occurred in 1993–1966, 2005– 2008, and 2013–2014, it was noted that the prevalence of adult obesity had drastically increased from 11.8% to 17.9% to 22.1%, in recent years. Thus, considering the public health impact, and that weight loss is effective for reducing chronic disease risk a study was done on young adult Taiwanese students to measure the impact of aerobic exercise on weight loss. Aims & objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate & compare the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise and energy expenditure on different anthropometric indices in obese Taiwanese students. Method: In a 12 week exercise programme after initial screening, 48 obese Taiwanese students were randomly assigned into four different aerobic intensity groups. All participants’ demographic data, anthropometric data, anthropometric measurement, blood biochemical parameters and health-related physical fitness components between baseline and week 12 were analysed and compared using a Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Result & conclusion: The study showed that difference in exercise intensities resulted in significant changes in body weight, waist circumference(WC), weight to hip ratio(WHR), and weight to height ratio( WHtR ) amongst the participants of high intensity training group (HITG), medium intensity training group (MITG) and Low intensity training group (LITG). Though, HITG with higher energy expenditure was more effective in improving body composition in comparison to (LITG), even when the diet was not controlled. Thus, intensity may be crucial for modulating abdominal fat and sequentially reducing WC, WHR, and WHtR.
BACKGROUND The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. METHODS Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A 12-week high-intensity exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 Dec 2009.
Cervical spinal cord compression in a child with cervicofacial actinomycosis.
Brain & development. 2014;(7):634-6
Actinomycosis is a rare, chronic, suppurative, and slowly progressive granulomatous disease caused by a group of filamentous gram-positive anaerobic bacteria belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. It may involve several organs; however, spinal cord compression has rarely been reported. We report a 7-year-3-month-old girl who suffered from neck pain with restricted movement, poor appetite, body weight loss, mild right limbs weakness, and a non-tender neck mass. Histopathology of the neck mass revealed sulfur granules of actinomyces. Since actinomycosis was strongly suspected, she was treated with high dose of parenteral penicillin G followed by oral penicillin with complete recovery. The unusual features of our case suggested that actinomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of neck mass and cervical spinal cord compression.
Clinical responses of patients with Kawasaki disease to different brands of intravenous immunoglobulin.
The Journal of pediatrics. 2006;(1):38-43
OBJECTIVE To determine whether different brands of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administered to children with Kawasaki disease (KD) result in different outcomes. STUDY DESIGN We analyzed children with KD and divided them into 4 groups according to the brand of IVIG. A coronary artery abnormality (CAA) was defined as having a lumen diameter (inner border to inner border) of > or =3 mm in KD cases <5 years old and > or =4 mm in cases > or =5 years old, and giant aneurysm was defined as a lumen diameter > or =8 mm. Patients were considered nonresponsive to IVIG therapy if fever persisted longer than 2 days after completion of treatment and needed retreatment with IVIG. RESULTS We collected 437 cases, 29 (6.6%) were nonresponsive, 17 (3.9%) had CAA at convalescence, and 3 (0.7%) had giant aneurysm, 2 of whom had development of myocardial infarcts. Patients receiving Brand C IVIG, prepared with beta-propiolactone, had higher rates (10%, 9/93, P = .01) of CAA at convalescence and nonresponsiveness (13%, 12/93, P = .001); giant aneurysm occurred in 3/93 (3%) receiving Brand C IVIG and in 0/344 who received the other 3 brands (P = .008). CONCLUSIONS IVIG, prepared with beta-propiolactone, was most significantly associated with nonresponsiveness, CAA at convalescence, and giant aneurysm. Physicians should be cautious when using IVIG prepared with beta-propiolactone or enzyme digestion to treat KD.