Effect of Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: The Role of Intestinal Microbiota on Hesperidin Bioavailability.
Plain language summary
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause around 31% of all deaths worldwide. Certain dietary patterns have been associated with a reduction in CVDs and so the use of natural-based products has gained importance as a preventive strategy. Hesperidin is a bioactive compound found in high levels in citrus fruits. The reported beneficial properties include antitumor, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; cholesterol and glucose lowering effects. Many animal studies show multiple beneficial effects but are inconclusive in human studies. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of hesperidin on CVD factors and to highlight the individual differences in its bioavailability and effectiveness. The gut bacteria play an important role in this. Hesperidin is not broken down by the normal digestive process and reaches the colon largely intact. It is the job of the gut bacteria to break it down into bioavailable substances that can be absorbed and utilised. The discrepancies observed in some of the results from human clinical trials may be partly due to individual differences, including that of the gut bacteria. Further clinical trials should be considered as well as classifying individuals according to individual differences in metabotypes.
Recently, hesperidin, a flavonone mainly present in citrus fruits, has emerged as a new potential therapeutic agent able to modulate several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors. Animal and in vitro studies demonstrate beneficial effects of hesperidin and its derived compounds on CVD risk factors. Thus, hesperidin has shown glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory properties in diabetic models, dyslipidemia-, atherosclerosis-, and obesity-preventing effects in CVDs and obese models, and antihypertensive and antioxidant effects in hypertensive models. However, there is still controversy about whether hesperidin could contribute to ameliorate glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity, and blood pressure in humans, as evidenced by several clinical trials reporting no effects of treatments with this flavanone or with orange juice on these cardiovascular parameters. In this review, we focus on hesperidin's beneficial effects on CVD risk factors, paying special attention to the high interindividual variability in response to hesperidin-based acute and chronic interventions, which can be partly attributed to differences in gut microbiota. Based on the current evidence, we suggest that some of hesperidin's contradictory effects in human trials are partly due to the interindividual hesperidin variability in its bioavailability, which in turn is highly dependent on the α-rhamnosidase activity and gut microbiota composition.
Potential Use of Mobile Phone Applications for Self-Monitoring and Increasing Daily Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Systematized Review.
Plain language summary
A wide range of chronic diseases could be prevented through healthier lifestyle choices, such as consuming five portions of fruits and vegetables daily, but most adults don’t meet this recommendation. Health-related mobile phone applications (Apps) are growing in popularity and can guide users through various lifestyle changes. This systematised review aimed to assess the potential of Apps to increase fruit and vegetable intake. The authors looked at eight previous randomised controlled trials evaluating Apps for their ability to increase fruit and/or vegetable intake over a period of between two and nine months. Apps used in the trials included MyFitnessPal, LoseIt! CalorieMama and FatSecret, amongst others. In six of the studies, the Apps were effective in increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake by at least 2.4 portions per day. These studies focused on overweight adults and adults or young adults with unhealthy lifestyles, and age did not seem to affect the outcome. Apps seemed to be more effective in people with health problems, compared to people who were otherwise healthy. Apps that targeted children via their parents were not effective. The authors concluded that using health-related Apps can be a useful way to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in adults. Further research is needed into which features of Apps are most effective and to determine their success over the long term.
A wide range of chronic diseases could be prevented through healthy lifestyle choices, such as consuming five portions of fruits and vegetables daily, although the majority of the adult population does not meet this recommendation. The use of mobile phone applications for health purposes has greatly increased; these applications guide users in real time through various phases of behavioural change. This review aimed to assess the potential of self-monitoring mobile phone health (mHealth) applications to increase fruit and vegetable intake. PubMed and Web of Science were used to conduct this systematized review, and the inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials evaluating mobile phone applications focused on increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake as a primary or secondary outcome performed from 2008 to 2018. Eight studies were included in the final assessment. The interventions described in six of these studies were effective in increasing fruit and/or vegetable intake. Targeting stratified populations and using long-lasting interventions were identified as key aspects that could influence the effectiveness of these interventions. In conclusion, evidence shows the effectiveness of mHealth application interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Further research is needed to design effective interventions and to determine their efficacy over the long term.