Beverage consumption patterns among 4-19 y old children in 2009-14 NHANES show that the milk and 100% juice pattern is associated with better diets.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):54
Plain language summary
Recommendations for milk and/or fruit juice consumption in children’s diets has remained inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether patterns in beverage consumption among children and adolescents can influence food choices and overall diet quality. Beverage consumption patterns of 8119 children and adolescents were analysed based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Beverage patterns were defined as milk pattern, juice pattern, milk and juice or other caloric beverages. This analysis found that while children rarely limit their drinking choices to a single beverage, those who primarily consumed milk, juice or a combination of the two were associated with better dietary choices. Based on this study, the authors conclude that promotion of milk and juice consumption, compared to other caloric beverages, may be an effective way to improve overall diet quality in children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND Patterns of beverage consumption among children and adolescents can be indicative of food choices and total diet quality. METHODS Analyses of beverage consumption patterns among 8119 children aged 4-19 y were based on the first 24-h recall of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-14 NHANES). Four pre-defined beverage patterns were: 1) milk pattern; 2) 100% juice pattern; 3) milk and 100% juice pattern; and 4) other caloric beverages. Food- and nutrient-based diet quality measures included the Healthy Eating Index 2010. RESULTS Most children drank other caloric beverages, as opposed to milk (17.8%), 100% juice (5.6%), or milk and 100% juice (13.5%). Drinkers of milk and 100% juice had diets that did not differ from each other in total calories, total and added sugars, fiber, or vitamin E. Milk drinkers consumed more dairy and had higher intakes of calcium, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin D as compared to all other patterns. Juice drinkers consumed more total fruit, same amounts of whole fruit, and had higher intakes of vitamin C as compared to the other consumption patterns. Drinkers of both milk and 100% juice had the highest HEI 2010 scores of all the consumption patterns. CONCLUSIONS Beverage consumption patterns built around milk and/or 100% juice were relatively uncommon. Promoting the drinking of milk and 100% juice, in preference to other caloric beverages, may be an effective strategy to improve children's diet quality. Restricting milk and 100% juice consumption may encourage the selection of other caloric beverages.
Factors associated with maintenance of body mass index in the Jackson Heart Study: A prospective cohort study secondary analysis.
Preventive medicine. 2017;:95-100
The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of diet quality, physical activity, and environmental factors with body mass index (BMI) maintenance in African American adults. We analyzed data from 4041 participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort study based in Jackson, Mississippi. Exposures were baseline American Heart Association diet quality score, American Heart Association physical activity categories, the built environment, the food environment, and neighborhood safety. The outcome was weight maintenance or loss (no BMI increase ≥1.0kg/m2) versus weight gain (BMI increased ≥1.0kg/m2) over a mean of 5.0years. We found that 63% of participants maintained or lost weight and 37% gained weight. In multivariable analyses, ideal diet quality was associated with a 6% greater likelihood of BMI maintenance (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03, 1.10). Living in an unsafe neighborhood was associated with a 2% lower likelihood of BMI maintenance (IRR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.99), as was poor built environment (IRR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.998). Physical activity and poor food environment were not associated with BMI maintenance. In conclusion, among African American adults in Jackson, Mississippi, high quality diet was the strongest factor associated with BMI maintenance.
Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults.
The Journal of nutrition. 2016;(1):59-64
BACKGROUND Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. METHODS We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. RESULTS The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P < 0.05) and for the time period from baseline through 1030 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The results from this study in 12 healthy adults do not support the popularized notion that small, frequent meals help to decrease overall appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026.
Added soluble fiber enhances the satiating power of low-energy-density liquid yogurts.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009;(11):1862-8
BACKGROUND Low-energy-density foods with high satiating power may be useful tools for weight management. Energy density of yogurts can range from 0.4 to 1.8 kcal/g. OBJECTIVE To test the effects of added inulin, a soluble fiber, on the satiating properties of low-energy-density and high-energy-density yogurt beverages (16 oz or 472 mL). DESIGN The study followed a within-subject preload design with repeated measures. Each participant completed six conditions, presented in a counterbalanced order. SUBJECTS Participants were 18 men and 20 women, aged 18 to 35 years. INTERVENTION The experimental conditions were two high-energy-density yogurt beverages (440 kcal; 0.9 kcal/g) and two low-energy-density yogurt beverages (180 kcal; 0.4 kcal/g) with or without inulin (6 g) and an equal volume of orange juice (180 kcal). A no beverage control condition was used as well. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Repeated ratings of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat and energy consumption at the lunch meal served 120 minutes post-ingestion were the main measures. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to analyze motivational ratings and energy and nutrient intakes at the test meal. RESULTS Yogurt beverages and liquid orange juice significantly suppressed appetite and promoted satiety relatively to the no beverage condition. Yogurt beverages had greater satiating power than did orange juice, as evidenced by higher satiety ratings and reduced energy intakes at lunch. The satiating power of low-energy-density yogurt with inulin was comparable to that of high-energy-density yogurt. CONCLUSIONS Energy presented in liquid form can have satiating power. Added fiber can potentiate the satiating properties of low-energy-density liquid yogurts. Adding fiber to low-energy-density foods may be an effective way to suppress appetite and control food intake.