Egg Consumption in U.S. Children is Associated with Greater Daily Nutrient Intakes, including Protein, Lutein + Zeaxanthin, Choline, α-Linolenic Acid, and Docosahexanoic Acid.
Plain language summary
Dietary guidelines recommend children and adolescents consume nutrient-dense foods to promote growth and development, and recently eggs have been included in these recommendations. At present, there are no studies in children and adolescents that have examined nutrient-related associations of egg consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. Using cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), data from 3,299 egg consumers and 17,030 non-egg consumers aged 2-18 was examined. Compared with non-egg consumption, egg consumption was associated with elevated intake of protein, healthy fats, antioxidants and various vitamins and minerals, and lower intake of sugar. There were several shortfall nutrients associated with egg consumption including fibre, iron, and folate. No associations were found when examining diet quality and growth-relate measures. This analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents. Based on these results, the authors conclude this study illustrates an opportunity to communicate the benefits linked with egg consumption to individuals that influence children and adolescents.
undefined: Dietary pattern recommendations include consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods in children and adolescents to promote optimal growth and development. The current study investigated associations with egg consumption and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and growth outcomes relative to non-egg consumers. The analysis used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2012 in children and adolescents aged 2-18 years ( = 3,299, egg consumers; = 17,030, egg non-consumers). Daily energy and nutrient intakes were adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES using appropriate weights. Consuming eggs was associated with increased daily energy intake relative to non-egg consumption. Children and adolescents consuming eggs had elevated daily intake of protein, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and total fat, α-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, lutein + zeaxanthin, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium. Egg consumers had greater consumption, sodium, saturated fat, with reduced total and added sugar versus egg non-consumers. The analysis also showed that egg consumption was linked with lower intake of dietary folate, iron, and niacin. No associations were determined when examining diet quality and growth-related measures. A sub-analysis considering socioeconomic status showed that egg consumption was positively related with daily lutein + zeaxanthin and DHA intake. The current analysis demonstrated several nutrient-related benefits to support the continued inclusion of eggs in the dietary patterns of children and adolescents.
Diets higher in animal and plant protein are associated with lower adiposity and do not impair kidney function in US adults.
The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2016;(3):743-9
BACKGROUND Higher-protein diets are associated with decreased adiposity and greater HDL cholesterol than lower protein diets. Whether these benefits can be attributed to a specific protein source (i.e., nondairy animal, dairy, or plant) is unknown, and concerns remain regarding the impact of higher-protein diets on kidney function. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate trends of protein source on markers of cardiometabolic disease risk and kidney function in US adults. DESIGN Total, nondairy animal, dairy, and plant protein intake were estimated with the use of 24-h recall data from NHANES 2007-2010 (n = 11,111; ≥19 y). Associations between source-specific protein intake and health outcomes were determined with the use of models that adjusted for sex, race and ethnicity, age, physical activity, poverty-to-income ratio, individual intake (grams per kilogram) for each of the other 2 protein sources, body mass index (BMI) (except for weight-related variables), and macronutrient (carbohydrate, fiber, and total and saturated fat) intake. RESULTS Mean ± SE total protein intake was 82.3 ± 0.8 g/d (animal: 37.4 ± 0.5 g/d; plant: 24.7 ± 0.3 g/d; and dairy: 13.4 ± 0.3 g/d). Both BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated [regression coefficient (95% CI)] with animal [-0.199 (-0.265, -0.134), P < 0.0001; -0.505 (-0.641, -0.370), P < 0.0001] and plant [-0.346 (-0.455, -0.237), P < 0.0001; -0.826 (-1.114, -0.538), P < 0.0001] protein intake. Blood urea nitrogen concentrations increased across deciles for animal [0.313 (0.248, 0.379), P < 0.0001; decile 1-10: 11.6 ± 0.2 to 14.9 ± 0.3 mg/dL] and dairy [0.195 (0.139, 0.251), P < 0.0001; decile 1-10: 12.7 ± 0.2 to 13.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL] but not plant protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate and blood creatinine were not associated with intake of any protein source. CONCLUSIONS Diets higher in plant and animal protein, independent of other dietary factors, are associated with cardiometabolic benefits, particularly improved central adiposity, with no apparent impairment of kidney function.