Effects of Exercise Intervention Program on Bone Mineral Accretion in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Indian journal of pediatrics. 2019;(11):987-994
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effect of one year exercise intervention program on bone mineral accrual in children and adolescent with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS Fifty-two CF children (mean age 149.79 mo) were randomized into experimental (15 boys and 10 girls) and control groups (15 boys and 12 girls). Experimental group performed prescribed exercises three times/week, while control group continued with routine physical activities for one year. Following were assessed at baseline and at one year: Bone mineral density (BMD) of whole body and lumbar spine, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quality of life and habitual activity. RESULTS Change in whole body and lumbar spine BMD over 12 mo in experimental group was lower by 0.006 g/cm2 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.02) and higher by 0.001 g/cm2 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.03) than controls, respectively. However, difference between groups was non-significant for both parameters. Experimental group had a significant improvement in their exercise capacity (p = 0.006), quality of life, and serum vitamin D (p = 0.007) levels. Differences between groups for changes in pulmonary function and habitual activity were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS Exercise regime was not associated with significant improvement in BMD of CF patients, but it had a positive impact on both physical and psychological health of these patients.
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in association with dapagliflozin use after gastric sleeve surgery in a patient with type II diabetes mellitus.
Clinical case reports. 2019;(5):1087-1090
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2Is) can be associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA). Severe metabolic acidosis with extreme electrolyte abnormalities can occur with nonsignificant blood glucose elevations in SGLT2I-treated patients. Additional risk factors for eDKA include prolonged fasting, major illness, large weight loss, and reductions in insulin doses.
A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, multicenter clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of Emblica officinalis extract in patients with dyslipidemia.
BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2019;19(1):27
Plain language summary
Emblica officinalis (Amla or Indian gooseberry) is a fruit that has been traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine. It has been shown to be effective in the management of dyslipidemia (abnormal fat metabolism), a risk factor for heart disease, in animal models and in pilot clinical studies without major side effects. This multicenter, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a proprietary full spectrum amla extract (containing pulp and seeds) in patients with dyslipidemia. 98 patients were enrolled and all completed the 12 week study. None of them were taking any medication for their dyslipidaemia. All the patients enrolled in the study were also asked to initiate lifestyle changes (healthy diet with exercise at least 4 days a week). Apart from conventional lipid parameters, the investigators also measured a number of other parameters relevant to heart disease, including the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP, a marker of heart disease risk). Compared to the placebo group the amla group had significantly greater reductions in triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP, a better predictor of heart disease risk). There were no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol, CoQ10 (lowering of CoQ10 is a concern with many cholesterol lowering drugs), homocysteine, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or fasting blood glucose. Four non-serious adverse events were observed: mild headache, mild fever, two times gastritis (all resolved with standard treatment), three were in the placebo group, one in the amla group. There were no changes in routine blood tests and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate). The authors conclude that the amla extract has significant potential to improve dyslipidaemia without side effects commonly seen with cholesterol lowering drugs.
BACKGROUND Dyslipidemia is one of the most frequently implicated risk factors for development of atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the efficacy of amla (Emblica officinalis) extract (composed of polyphenols, triterpenoids, oils etc. as found in the fresh wild amla fruit) in patients with dyslipidemia. METHODS A total of 98 dyslipidemic patients were enrolled and divided into amla and placebo groups. Amla extract (500 mg) or a matching placebo capsule was administered twice daily for 12 weeks to the respective group of patients. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and efficacy of study medication was assessed by analyzing lipid profile. Other parameters evaluated were apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), homocysteine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). RESULTS In 12 weeks, the major lipids such as total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.0003), triglyceride (TG) (p = 0.0003), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.0064) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) (p = 0.0001) were significantly lower in amla group as compared to placebo group. Additionally, a 39% reduction in atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP) (p = 0.0177) was also noted in amla group. The ratio of Apo B to Apo A1 was reduced more (p = 0.0866) in the amla group as compared to the placebo. There was no significant change in CoQ10 level of amla (p = 0.2942) or placebo groups (p = 0.6744). Although there was a general trend of FBS reduction, the numbers of participants who may be classified as pre-diabetes and diabetes groups (FBS > 100 mg/dl) in the amla group were only 8. These results show that the amla extract used in the study is potentially a hypoglycaemic as well. However, this needs reconfirmation in a larger study. CONCLUSIONS The Amla extract has shown significant potential in reducing TC and TG levels as well as lipid ratios, AIP and apoB/apo A-I in dyslipidemic persons and thus has scope to treat general as well as diabetic dyslipidemia. A single agent to reduce cholesterol as well as TG is rare. Cholesterol reduction is achieved without concomitant reduction of Co Q10, in contrast to what is observed with statins. TRIAL REGISTRATION Registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India at www.ctri.nic.in (Registration number: CTRI/2015/04/005682 ) on 8 April 2015 (retrospectively registered).
Left Atrial Myxoma Presenting as Lateral Medullary (Wallenberg's) Syndrome.
Case reports in cardiology. 2019;:5610213
Myxomas are benign, primary tumors of the heart. Atrial myxomas can present with a variety of clinical features including dyspnea, orthopnea, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary or systemic emboli. Constitutional symptoms such as fever and weight loss may also be present. We report the case of a young female presenting with headache, facial numbness, and vertigo, who was found to have a posterolateral medullary stroke secondary to a large left atrial cardiac myxoma.
Hypereosinophilic syndrome preceding a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma.
INTRODUCTION Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilia and organ destruction secondary to eosinophilic infiltration. The coexistence of primary B-cell lymphoma and hypereosinophilic syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of HES that preceded the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea and 30-pound weight loss. Complete blood count showed a white blood cell count of 7452/µL with eosinophils of 42% (absolute eosinophil count 3130). Colonoscopy showed eosinophilic infiltrate in the lamina propria and muscularis mucosa. Bone marrow biopsy showed elevated myeloid: erythroid ratio (6:1), increased mature and immature eosinophilic infiltration (10% of nucleated cells). Molecular studies were negative for Fip1-like1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) translocation and PDGFRB and FGFR mutations, indicating nonclonal eosinophilia. Treatment was initiated with prednisone (1 mg/kg) and hydroxyurea 500 mg twice daily. He responded with complete resolution of symptoms. Five months later, the patient presented with right lower quadrant pain. Abdominal/pelvis computed tomography (CT) showed bulky right inguinal lymphadenopathy and biopsy revealed CD10+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Further staging workup showed the stage to be IIB. He received 6 cycles of chemotherapy and involved field radiation therapy. He achieved complete remission. CONCLUSION Reviewing the literature indicates only one case of similar presentation with concomitant HES and DLBCL. Eosinophilia is routinely encountered in clinical practice and as such physicians must be aware of the rarer, more malevolent underlying associations of this condition so as to aid early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
Female Runner With Painful Left Thigh Swelling: A Case of May-Thurner Syndrome.
PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation. 2018;(2):227-229
We discuss a case of a female runner who presented with burning left groin and thigh pain and positional swelling after a long run. The workup revealed May-Thurner syndrome. May-Thurner syndrome anatomy is a common anatomical variant present in approximately 20% of the population. Compression of the iliac vein may result in venous stasis in the lower limb with a predisposition to deep venous thrombosis. We identify 4 reported cases of May-Thurner syndrome in female runners and review the importance of diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this condition. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V.
Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Incognito Manifestation as Generalized Lymphadenopathy: a Rare Case Report.
Indian journal of surgical oncology. 2017;(1):91-93
Generalized lymphadenopathy is a rare manifestation of carcinoma prostate. Here, we report a case of a 73-year-old male who presented with left supraclavicular lymphadenopathy along with hoarseness of voice and weight loss. His CT neck, chest, abdomen, and subsequently18F-FDG PET CT were suggestive of generalized lymphadenopathy with skeletal involvement. He was not having any urinary or bone symptoms. The biopsy of supraclavicular lymph node revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma, whose prostatic origin was suggested by IHC staining of PSA. The diagnosis was confirmed by prostatic biopsy along with markedly raised serum PSA. We emphasize that in men with adenocarcinoma of undetermined origin, a suspicion of prostate cancer is important for accurate diagnosis and therapeutic approach.
Disseminated Emmonsia pasteuriana infection in India: a case report and a review.
We report here the first case of disseminated Emmonsia pasteuriana infection in a patient with AIDS in India. The patient presented with weight loss, dyspnoea, left-sided chest pain and multiple non-tender skin lesions over face and body for 3 months. Disseminated emmonsiosis was diagnosed on microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin biopsy and needle aspirate of lung consolidation. It was confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, beta tubulin, actin, and intein PRP8. The patient responded to amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy.
Differences in Weight Loss Between Persons on Standard Balanced vs Nutrigenetic Diets in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 2015;(9):1625-1632.e1
BACKGROUND & AIMS Many companies provide genetic tests for obesity-related polymorphisms (nutrigenetics) and make dietary recommendations for weight loss that are based on the results. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether more participants who followed a nutrigenetic-guided diet lost ≥5% of their body weight than participants on a standard balanced diet for 8 and 24 weeks. METHODS We performed a prospective study of 51 obese or overweight U.S. veterans on an established weight management program at the Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (the MOVE! program). Participants were randomly assigned to groups placed on a nutrigenetic-guided diet (balanced, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, or Mediterranean; n = 30) or a standard balanced diet (n = 21). Nutrigenetic diets were selected on the basis of results from the Pathway FIT test. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants on the balanced diet vs the nutrigenetic-guided diet who lost 5% of their body weight at 8 weeks (35.0% ± 20.9% vs 26.9% ± 17.1%, respectively; P = .28) or at 24 weeks. Both groups had difficulty adhering to the diets. However, adherence to the nutrigenetic-guided diet correlated with weight loss (r = 0.74; P = 4.0 × 10(-5)), but not adherence to standard therapy (r = 0.34; P = .23). Participants who had low-risk polymorphisms for obesity lost more weight than all other participants at 8 weeks (5.0% vs 2.9%, respectively; P = .02) and had significantly greater reductions in body mass index (6.4% vs 3.6%, respectively; P = .03) and waist circumference (6.5% vs 2.6%, respectively; P = .02) at 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS In a prospective study, a nutrigenetic-based diet did not increase weight loss compared with a standard balanced diet. However, genetic features can identify individuals most likely to benefit from a balanced diet weight loss strategy; these findings require further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01859403.
Recurrent chest pain after treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection: An enigma.
Indian heart journal. 2015;:S18-20
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare entity. It has been described in various settings like pregnancy, collagen vascular diseases, cocaine abuse, heavy exercise, variant angina, eosinophilic arteritis, or fibro muscular dysplasia. It is also easy to miss a dissection during angiography, as the typical radiolucent lumen seen in coronary angiography may be absent in many cases. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old female who presented with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction due to spontaneous coronary dissection. She had been having episodic chest pain for one year and had been seen by two different cardiologists but was thought to have non-cardiac symptoms. Even during the index hospitalization, she underwent coronary angiography three times before coronary dissection could be identified as the cause of her symptoms. She underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery uneventfully. However, even after myocardial revascularization, she has had multiple episodes of chest pain requiring hospitalization. However, we have not been able to find a specific cause for it and the cause of her recurrent chest pain remains an enigma. This case highlights the problems, which arise while managing a case of SCAD. More research is needed to find the exact etiology and long-term prognosis of this condition.