Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
Nutrition journal. 2018;17(1):99
Plain language summary
Dietary factors, including glycaemic load, fat, phytoestrogen, fruit and vegetable intake, play an important role in the development of ovarian cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine: 1. The available evidence from epidemiological studies; 2. The differences of ovarian cancer risk reported according to study design, geographic location and types or sources of fibre; 3) A possible dose-response relationship between dietary fibre intake and risk of ovarian cancer. 13 studies, comprising 5,777 ovarian cancer cases and 142,189 participants, published between 1994 and 2015, were included in this meta-analysis. All studies measured dietary intakes using a food-frequency questionnaire. The meta-analysis showed that the women with the highest intake of total fibre had a significantly lower risk (22%) of developing ovarian cancer than those with the lowest fibre intake, and that there was a dose dependent reduction in risk, for every 10g of fibre consumed, there was a 12% reduction in risk. When looking at different types/sources of fibre, vegetable fibre showed the biggest protective effect, whilst cereal fibres showed an increased risk for ovarian cancer. Factors which influenced the risk were contraceptive use and menopausal status. The authors discuss possible mechanisms for the protective effect of fibre: 1. Decrease of circulating oestrogen through changing of bacterial composition in the gut and 2. Reduction of glycaemic load through fibre.
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies regarding the association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk are still inconsistent. We aimed to review the available evidence and conduct a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases before August 2017. Studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of ovarian cancer were included. Random-effects models were used to combine the estimated effects extracted from individual study. RESULTS Thirteen studies, with a total of 5777 ovarian cancer cases and 142,189 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled multivariable RRs of ovarian cancer for the highest vs. the lowest category of dietary fiber intake was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.88) with no evidence of heterogeneity (I = 4.20%, P = 0.40). Our dose-response analysis also showed a significant inverse association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk (an increment of 10 g/day; combined RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.93). There was no evidence for a nonlinear association (P for nonlinearity = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggests a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and ovarian cancer risk. Further studies with prospective design that take account of more potential confounders are warranted to confirm this association.
[Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology. 2018;(1):34-41
Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention (P < 0.05). The aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant increase in resting energy expenditure and significant reductions in abdominal fat ratio and total cholesterol after 6 months of resistance exercise (P < 0.05). The aerobic exercise group and the resistance exercise group had a significant reduction in vaspin and a significant increase in irisin after intervention (P < 0.05), and the resistance exercise group had significantly greater changes in these two adipokines than the aerobic exercise group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy is an effective method for the treatment of metabolism-associated diseases, and a combination of resistance and aerobic exercises is more reasonable and effective in clinical practice. As a relatively safe exercise mode, resistance exercise can also effectively improve the metabolic state of NAFLD patients.
Effect of balance training with Pro-kin System on balance in patients with white matter lesions.
Patients with white matter lesions (WMLs) often present with problems of balance. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of combined Pro-kin system and conventional balance training to improve balance ability in WMLs patients.This is a randomized controlled study, and 40 participants were divided into 2 groups: the intervention group (n=18) received Pro-kin system with additional conventional balance training for 20 minutes per session, 5 times a week, for 2 weeks. The control group (n = 19) received only conventional balance training. Outcome measures were examined before and after the 2 weeks intervention using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Pro-kin system.After completion of the 2 weeks intervention, BBS, TUG, and Pro-kin system results significantly improved in the intervention group (P < .05). In the control group, BBS and Pro-kin system results significantly improved (P < .05). Changes in all outcomes but the ellipse area with eye closed (P < .05) were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group.The combination of Pro-kin system and conventional balance training is a potentially valuable treatment for patients with WMLs.