Adiponectin and 8-epi-PGF2α as intermediate influencing factors in weight reduction after legume consumption: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.
The British journal of nutrition. 2022;(2):257-265
Legumes are rich sources of essential nutrients, and their potential health benefits were reported in many studies. Several studies showed a positive effect of legumes on obesity, but randomised clinical trials are limited in the Korean population. The present intervention study investigated the impact of legumes on body weight in obese Korean subjects. A total of 400 participants (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were randomised into two groups. The legume-enriched diet (LD) group replaced one-third of their refined rice consumption with legumes three times per day as a carbohydrate source. In contrast, the usual diet (UD) group consumed their UD. The mean weight loss at 12 weeks was 2·87 (sem 0·21) kg and 0·17 (sem 0·11) kg in the LD and UD, respectively, which was significantly different between the groups (P < 0·001). HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin levels were increased, and levels of glucose, insulin, TAG, and 8-epi-PGF2α and the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (IR) index value decreased at 12 weeks compared with baseline in the LD. The consumption of legumes may accelerate weight loss accompanied by regulation of adiponectin and 8-epi-PGF2α in obese subjects. In particular, legumes seemed to induce significant changes in BMI by increasing adiponectin in females. Additionally, increases in plasma adiponectin due to greater substantial weight loss may be related to the improvement in IR.
Case Report: Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of Four Cases With Review of Additional 331 Cases in the Literature.
Frontiers in oncology. 2022;:883141
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and highly malignant non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma with uncommon clinical presentation and poor prognosis. The diagnostic pitfall of IVLBCL is mainly due to the fact that subtle histological changes could be easily overlooked, in addition to its rare occurrence, non-specific and variable clinical presentations, and the absence of significant mass lesions. The purpose of this study is to further explore the clinicopathologic and molecular features of IVLBCL to ensure an accurate diagnosis of this entity. Here, we retrospectively present the data of the four new cases and the literature cases. The age ranged from 23 to 92, with a medium age of 67 and a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable, including fever, night sweats, weight loss, anemia, thrombocytopenia, unexplained hypoxemia, impaired consciousness, and skin lesions, as well as the extremely low levels of serum albumin, high levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R), and ferritin. Morphologically, 99.9% of cases showed a selective growth pattern with large, atypical lymphocytes within the lumen of small blood vessels. In addition, vast majority of cases were positive for CD20, CD79a, PAX5, MUM1, and BCL6, and a subset of cases expressed BCL2 and CD5, whereas CD3 and CD10 were typically negative. Ki-67 proliferative index ranged from 20% to 100%. To sum up, we have conducted comprehensive case reports, to the best of our knowledge, this is the largest reported cohort of IVLBCL cases. Comprehensive assessments and more IVLBCL cases are required for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
Serum metabolomic responses to aerobic exercise in rats under chronic unpredictable mild stress.
Scientific reports. 2022;(1):4888
This study analyzed the effects of aerobic exercise on endogenous serum metabolites in response to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) using a rat model, aiming to identify the metabolic regulatory pathways involved in the antidepressant effect resulted from a 28-day treadmill aerobic exercise intervention. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): normal control, normal with aerobic exercise, CUMS control, and CUMS with aerobic exercise. Body weight, sucrose preference and open field tests were performed weekly during the intervention period for changes in depressant symptoms. Serum metabolic profiles obtained by using the LC-MS/MS metabolomics were analyzed to explore the regulatory mechanism for the effect of the aerobic exercise on depression. Behavior tests showed that the aerobic exercise resulted in a significant improvement in depression-like behavior in the CUMS rats. A total of 21 differential metabolites were identified as being associated with depression in serum metabolic profile, of which the aerobic exercise significantly modulated 15, mainly related to amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism. Collectively, this is the first study that LC-MS/MS techniques were used to reveal the modulatory effects of aerobic exercise on the serum metabolic profile of depressed rats and the findings further enriched our understanding of potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise interventions on depression.
Diverse Right Ventricular Remodeling Evaluated by MRI and Prognosis in Eisenmenger Syndrome With Different Shunt Locations.
Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI. 2022;(5):1478-1488
BACKGROUND Congenital shunt location is related to Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) survival. Moreover, right ventricular (RV) remodeling is associated with poor survival in pulmonary hypertension. PURPOSE To investigate RV remodeling using comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and identify its relationship with prognosis in ES subgroups classified by shunt location. STUDY TYPE Prospective observational study. POPULATION Fifty-four adults with ES (16 with pre-tricuspid shunt and 38 with post-tricuspid shunt). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE 3.0 T/cine MRI with balanced steady-state free precession sequence, late gadolinium enhancement with inversion recovery segmented gradient echo sequence and phase-sensitive reconstruction, and T1 mapping with modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. ASSESSMENT Demographics, clinical characteristics, hemodynamics, RV remodeling features (morphology, systolic function, RV-pulmonary artery (PA) coupling and myocardial fibrosis), and prognosis were compared between ES subgroups. The adverse endpoint was all-cause mortality or readmission for heart failure. STATISTICAL TESTS The independent samples t-test, Fisher's exact test or Chi-squared test, and the Kaplan-Meier method were used. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Compared to patients with post-tricuspid shunt, patients with pre-tricuspid shunt were significantly older and had higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations and poorer exercise tolerance. Pre-tricuspid shunt showed significantly larger RV dimensions (end-diastolic volume index: 185.81 ± 37.49 vs. 98.20 ± 36.26 mL/m2 ), worse RV ejection fraction (23.54% ± 12.35% vs. 40.82% ± 10.77%), and RV-PA decoupling (0.35 ± 0.31 vs. 0.72 ± 0.29). Biventricular myocardial fibrosis was significantly more severe in pre-tricuspid shunt than post-tricuspid shunt (extracellular volume, left ventricle: 35.85% ± 2.58% vs. 29.10% ± 5.20%; RV free wall: 30.93% ± 5.65% vs. 26.75% ± 5.15%). In addition, pre-tricuspid shunt demonstrated a significantly increased risk of adverse endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.938, 95% confidence interval: 1.204-7.172). DATA CONCLUSION ES with pre-tricuspid shunt might be a unique subtype with worse clinically decompensated RV remodeling and poor prognosis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 2 Technical Efficacy Stage: 5.
The role of enriched environment in neural development and repair.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 2022;:890666
In addition to genetic information, environmental factors play an important role in the structure and function of nervous system and the occurrence and development of some nervous system diseases. Enriched environment (EE) can not only promote normal neural development through enhancing neuroplasticity but also play a nerve repair role in restoring functional activities during CNS injury by morphological and cellular and molecular adaptations in the brain. Different stages of development after birth respond to the environment to varying degrees. Therefore, we systematically review the pro-developmental and anti-stress value of EE during pregnancy, pre-weaning, and "adolescence" and analyze the difference in the effects of EE and its sub-components, especially with physical exercise. In our exploration of potential mechanisms that promote neurodevelopment, we have found that not all sub-components exert maximum value throughout the developmental phase, such as animals that do not respond to physical activity before weaning, and that EE is not superior to its sub-components in all respects. EE affects the developing and adult brain, resulting in some neuroplastic changes in the microscopic and macroscopic anatomy, finally contributing to enhanced learning and memory capacity. These positive promoting influences are particularly prominent regarding neural repair after neurobiological disorders. Taking cerebral ischemia as an example, we analyzed the molecular mediators of EE promoting repair from various dimensions. We found that EE does not always lead to positive effects on nerve repair, such as infarct size. In view of the classic issues such as standardization and relativity of EE have been thoroughly discussed, we finally focus on analyzing the essentiality of the time window of EE action and clinical translation in order to devote to the future research direction of EE and rapid and reasonable clinical application.
A proctolin-like peptide is regulated after baculovirus infection and mediates in caterpillar locomotion and digestion.
Insect science. 2022;(1):230-244
Baculoviruses constitute a large group of invertebrate DNA viruses, predominantly infecting larvae of the insect order Lepidoptera. During a baculovirus infection, the virus spreads throughout the insect body producing a systemic infection in multiple larval tissues, included the central nervous system (CNS). As a main component of the CNS, neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules functioning as neurohormones, neurotransmitters, or neuromodulators. These peptides are involved in regulating animal physiology and behavior and could be altered after baculovirus infection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) infection on expression of Spodoptera exigua neuropeptides and neuropeptide-like genes. Expression of the gene encoding a polypeptide that resembles the well-known insect neuropeptide proctolin and named as proctolin-like peptide (PLP), was downregulated in the larval brain following infection and was chosen for further analysis. A recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) overexpressing the C-terminal part of the PLP was generated and used in bioassays using S. exigua larvae to study its influence on the viral infection and insect behavior. AcMNPV-PLP-infected larvae showed less locomotion activity and a reduction in growth compared to larvae infected with wild type AcMNPV or mock-infected larvae. These results are indicative of this new peptide as a neuromodulator that regulates visceral and skeletal muscle contractions and offers a novel effector involved in the behavioral changes during baculovirus infection.
Effects of preoperative nutrition on postoperative outcomes in esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. 2022;(3)
Postoperative enteral nutrition has been widely implemented in esophageal cancer, but the efficacy and safety of preoperative nutrition, particularly immune-enhancing nutrition (IEN), remain controversial. This meta-analysis aims to provide a quantitative synthesis of whether preoperative nutrition improves postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with resectable esophageal cancer. A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and databases of clinical trials dated up to December 2019. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing postoperative outcomes between esophageal cancer patients with and without preoperative nutritional support were included. Random-effects model was applied in the meta-analysis of primary outcomes (overall complication rate, in-hospital mortality) and secondary outcomes (infectious complication rate, anastomotic leak rate, length of postoperative hospital stay). Complications of feeding tube access and perioperative weight loss were evaluated by qualitative synthesis. Subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying immunonutrition and standard nutrition before surgery. Subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials alone was also done. A total of 15 studies enrolling 1864 participants were included. The overall meta-analysis found that preoperative nutrition could reduce infectious complications (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.26, 0.98]; I2 = 48%) and length of hospital stay (mean difference = -2.10 day, 95% CI [-3.72, -0.47]; I2 = 78%) after esophagectomy, whereas no significant difference was revealed in the incidence of overall complications (OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.52, 1.11]; I2 = 32%), in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [0.41, 2.61]; I2 = 12%), and anastomotic leak (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [0.69, 1.58]; I2 = 0%). Subgroup of preoperative immunonutrition showed more prominent benefits. The complication rate of feeding tube access was low (1.6-16%). In conclusion, preoperative nutrition is safe in esophageal cancer, but benefits are observed in infectious complication rate and length of stay on a limited scale. IEN holds more advantages over standard nutrition. Randomized trials in the context of nutritional support during neoadjuvant therapy are in demand.
Radiotherapy-Induced Digestive Injury: Diagnosis, Treatment and Mechanisms.
Frontiers in oncology. 2021;:757973
Radiotherapy is one of the main therapeutic methods for treating cancer. The digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder). The digestive system is easily impaired during radiotherapy, especially in thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. In this review, we introduce the physical classification, basic pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, predictive/diagnostic factors, and possible treatment targets of radiotherapy-induced digestive injury. Radiotherapy-induced digestive injury complies with the dose-volume effect and has a radiation-based organ correlation. Computed tomography (CT), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound (US) and endoscopy can help diagnose and evaluate the radiation-induced lesion level. The latest treatment approaches include improvement in radiotherapy (such as shielding, hydrogel spacers and dose distribution), stem cell transplantation and drug administration. Gut microbiota modulation may become a novel approach to relieving radiogenic gastrointestinal syndrome. Finally, we summarized the possible mechanisms involved in treatment, but they remain varied. Radionuclide-labeled targeting molecules (RLTMs) are promising for more precise radiotherapy. These advances contribute to our understanding of the assessment and treatment of radiation-induced digestive injury.
The effects of brief behavioral activation (BA) on children with physical disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.
The American journal of orthopsychiatry. 2021;(1):86-95
The majority of children with physical disabilities experience significant restrictions in their daily lives. Notably, they are at a risk for lower levels of activity and involvement in critical life domains. To address this issue, this study investigated whether behavioral activation (BA), in tandem with the installment of power-assisted devices (PAD), would have beneficial effects on activity levels, overall involvement in life domains, mobility, and depressive symptoms among children with physical disabilities. From among 123 children with physical disabilities aged 6-13 who used a nonpowered wheelchair device, 40 who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into either the PAD-only group or the BA + PAD group. The participants were assessed at 3 time periods (pretreatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks), using standardized self-report measures and digital odometers. Both groups showed an increase in the distance traveled. Although BA + PAD had no additional benefits over PAD-only in improving the distance traveled and depressive symptoms, the BA + PAD group showed significantly higher levels of activity and overall involvement in life domains than the PAD-only group did. The findings provide preliminary support for the provision of BA for children with physical disabilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
[Analysis of PKD2 gene variant and protein localization in a pedigree affected with polycystic kidney disease].
Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics. 2021;(1):47-51
OBJECTIVE To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function. METHODS Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization. RESULTS The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene. CONCLUSION The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.